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THE
METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
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THE
METALLURGISTS
AND
CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
A REFERENCE BOOK OF TABLES AND
DATA FOR THE STUDENT AND
METALLURGIST
COMPILED BY
DONALD M. LIDDELI .,"
OAl>TAIN, SIG. R. C, A. S.; CHIEF ENGINEER, WAR CREDITS BOARD CONSULTING METALLURGICAL ENGINEER, AND SOMETIME MAN AGING EDITOR OF The Engineering and Mining Journal
Second Edition
Revised and Enlarged
.Second Impression
McGRAWHILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK
LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd.
6 & 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C.
1918
Coi'yRIGHT, 1916, 1918, BY THK *
McGr'awHill Book Company, Inc.
THK MAl'I>: HBKKK VORK PA.
PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION
lu preparing the second edition of the "Metallurgists and Chemists' Handbook" there has been no change from the plan originally adopted, and the additions, in the main, have been largely those bearing on war activities, such as additional information on alloys and toxic gases. Unfortunately much that I should like to print on these subjects is at present for bidden ground. A short chapter has also been added on "Organic Chemistrj^, " and an attempt made to present the new concepts concerning the constitution of matter.
Thanks are due to the many friends who have pointed out the defects of the first edition. Among these I feel most indebted to are Dr. Colin G. Fink for notefi on the" Constants of tungsten; B. A. Robinson for a careful rfevie_w 'of practically the entire book; and Dr. Robert B. Sosrcaii for notes on the carbonates and silicates. •
DoXALli M! LiDDELL.
Washingtox, D. C, AprU 15, 1918.
PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION
This book is but little more than a collection of tables — those which my own experience and the requests from the readers of the Engineering and Mining Journal have led me to believe are most necessary to the chemist and metallurgist. There is no lengthy discussion of processes or apparatus. The field of descriptive metallurgy is at present too crowded by the monu mental works of Schnabel, Hofman, RobertsAusten and others, to admit of further competition. Certain sections will probably be criticized for their brevity, but these treat of those processes where there are no tables of constants, and the matter must either be descriptive or else nonexistent.
In the preparation of these tables I have been constantly struck by the divergent values given bj" different authorities for the same constants. While space has usually' prevented my giving the names of the experimenters and the dates of their work, I have attempted to exercise some discrimination in the choice between published values, taking into consideration the experimenter where known, and so far as available, the methods used, and, if I had not the original source, the general character of the book in which his work was transcribed.
Yet, on the theorj^ of probability only, the choice cannot always have been a happy one. Again, apart from any reliability' of the figures as I have found or chosen them, several years of sad experience have demonstrated the fallibility of compositors and proofreaders. So for all the unknown errors of fact, of judgment and of type contained herein, I herewith tender apolog>'. And I shall therefore take it as a favor to be advised of any errors which the reader may detect, at the same time asking his indulgence concerning them. • Thanks are due the many publishers who have so kindly allowed copying from their publications — who they are can be seen from the footnote credits through the book. I must also thank the friends .who have aided me in its preparation: Dr. Edward Weston, of Elizabeth, N. J., and W. R. Ingalls, H. A. Megraw and Percy E. Barbour, of the Engineering and Mining Journal. Mr. IMegraw contributed nearly all the data on ore dressing and cyanidation and Mr. Barbour, besides giving some valuable data, checked the page proof from begin ning to end. He is doubtless the only man beside the author who will ever read the entire book. And more than . all is appreciation due for the many hours of painstaking work by my wife in compiling and checking the various tables, and in reading the proofs.
Donald M. Liddell. Elizabeth, N. J.
February 11, 1916.
CONTENTS
Page
PxtEFACE V
Sec. I. Mathematics 1
Sec. II. Price and Productiox Statistics ... 53
Sec. III. Physical Constants 75
Sec. IV. Chemical Data 2.39
Sec. V. Sampling, Assaying and Analysis 318
Sec. VI. Ore Dressing 355
Sec. VII. Cyanidation 419
Sec. VIII. Fuels and Refractories 429
Sec. IX. Mechanical Engineering and Construc tion 456
Sec. X. General Metallurgy 491
Sec. XI. Organic Cheivhstry 625
Sec. XII. First Aid 632
Index 641
METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
SECTION I MATHEMATICS
SYMBOLS
The abbreviations given below will be standard in this book. It has been attempted to make them conform to those recom mended by the International Electrotechnical Commission, and the current practice of the best edited chemical, physical, and mathematical pubUcations.
A ampere 1; work (the latter also represented by W)
a acceleration
B magnetic flux density
B, b breadth
C coulombs; electric capacity; Centigrade temperature
D electrostatic flux density; depth
d differential
7 coefficient of adiabatic expansion, 1.406 approx.
A heat; increment
d partial differential
E, e electromotive force; lumens per cm., foot candles
e base of Napierian logarithms = 2.718281828459
c dielectric constant
F factor of safety; farad'
/ frequency; force; coefficient of friction
G conductance
g acceleration due to gravity = 981 cm. per sec.
H magnetic field; henry i
H, h height; head "
J? efficiency
7, i current; international candle
i imaginary square root of — 1 ; in older works, amperes
J intensity of magnetization; mechanical equivalent of heat, the joule^
K susceptibility
L self inductance; lumen second or hour
I length^ M mutual inductance
• Recommended by the Internatiooal Electrotechnical Commission for use after numerical values. > In dimensional equations, tise L, M, T, for length, mass and time.
1
2 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
m mass^
M permeability ; coefficient of friction
n number of turns in unit of time
01 angular velocity, ^r
P power; pressure
p pressure
IT ratio of circumference to diameter = 3.1415926535897
Q quantity of electricity
R resistance; gas constant
r radius
p resistivity
S reluctance
2 summation «
T absolute temperature; thickness; period
t temperature, time,^ thickness
6, «> temperature centigrade e temperature absolute V, V velocity, volt' A' reactance ir weight; energy; watt* w weight
<f> phase displacement 4> magnetic flux Z impedance
Mathematical Symbols
+ plus, positive Z angle
— minus, negative O parallelogram
± plus or minus D square
= equals or equal to O circle
o equivalent to L right angle
X multiplied by ± perpendicular to
^ divided by ^ degree, hour
> greater than ' minute, foot
< less than " second, inch
oc varies as va "n"throot
([ }]), symbols denoting a" "ri."th power
numbers enclosed are con S summation
sidered as one expression ^^ cycle
A triangle A increment
X ratio of circumference y integral
to diameter d partial differential
log logarithm = identical
logn log to base "n" = approaches
, J a c . ^ , 00 infinity a:o::c :d, r = „ a is to o as ^ ^ CIS tod
1 Recommended by the International Electrotecbnical Commission for uae after numerical values. *In dimensional equations, uae L, M , T. for length, ma.<;s and time.
MATHEMATICS
Trigonometric Abbreviations
sin sine 
tan 
tangent 

cos cosine 
cot 
cotangent 

sec secant 
versin 
versed sine 

CSC cosecant 
covers 
coversed sine 1 

sin~i0 angle whose 
sine 
is $ sin 6~^ 

sin d 

The 
Greek Alphabet 

A. a alpha 
1,1 iota 
P,p rho 

h,ii beta 
K,K kappa 
S,s,(7 sigma 

r,7 gamma 
A,X lambda 
T,r tau 

A,6 delta 
M,/i mu 
T,u upsilon 

E.e epsilon 
N,;/ nu 
4>.<^ phi 

Z,f zeta 
r.^xi 
X,x chi 

H,J7 eta 
0,0 omicron 
*,i^ psi 

e,e,d theta 
n,7r pi 
fi,« omega 
Mathematical Constants
e =.2.718281828459045
3.55 , .
T = jY^ (approx.).
TT = 3.14159265358979 Vtt = 1.772 7r2 = 9.8696
 = 0.5642
log JO = 0.434294 299 « = T77> (approx.).
log TT logeX 1
110 0.4971499 2.302585 logiox
0.10132
s/.S = 1 . 4422509 \/5 = 2.2360680 ^5 = 1.709621
V2 = 1.4142136 '^= 1.2599210 ■^.5 = 0.7937002 a/3 = 1 . 7320508
Temperature Reduction The Fahrenheit scale is based on 212° as the boiling point of water at normal pressure, 32° as the freezing point. Its zero was formerly supposed to be the lowest temperature attainable artificially.
The Centigrade (Celsius) scale assumes the freezing point of water as being 0°, the boiling point under normal pressure as 100°.
The Reaumur scale assumes the freezing point of water as 0°, the boiling point of water as 80°.
^0 C.° = R.° ;i% R.° = C.° %(F°  32) = C.°. ; % C.° + 32 = F.° ^(F.°  32) = R.° ; % R.° + 32 = F.°
Units of Heat The British Thermal Unit (B.T.U.) is the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°F., at or near its maximum density (39.1°F.).
4 MET.\LLURG1STS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
The calorie (cal.) is the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 10°C. to 11°C. (some times also defined as "from 4°C. to 5°C.," less commonly still, from "0=C. to 1°C."
The kilogramcalorie (Cal.) is 1000 times the above.
The poundcalorie is the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 lb. of water 1°C. (usually from 4°C. to 5°C )
1.0 Cal. = 3.968 B.T.U. = 2.2046 Ib.cal. 1.0 B.T.U. = 0.252 Cal. = 778 ft.lb. 1 Ib.Cal. = % B.T.U. = 0.4536 Cal.
Latent heat of a substance is the number of calories required t) be absorbed to change 1 gram of the substance from a solid to a liquid or a liquid to a gas, without change of temperature. An equal quantity is given out when the reverse change takes place.
Specific heat of a .substance is the ratio of the quantities of heat necessary to raise the temperature of equal masses (if the substance and of water from the same to the same temperatures.
The equivalent points on the different scales are 0.0° C = 0.0° R.
 40.0° C =  40.0° F.
 25 . 6° R =  25 . 6° F.
Scale of Temperatures by Color of Iron^ Dark red— hardly visible 970°F. Orange 2000°F.
Dull red 1300°F. Yellow 2150°F.
Cherrv— dark 1450°F. White heat 2350°F.
Cherrv— red 1650°F. White welding 2600'F.
Cherry— light 1800°F. White— dazzling 2800°F.
Standard Thermometric Points^
Ice melts 0.0'C. Zinc solidifies 419. 4°C.
Water boils 100. 0°C. Sulphur boils 444. 7°C.
Aniline boils 184. 1°C. Antimonv solidifies 630. 7°C.
Naphth;ilene boils 218. 0°C. Sodium chloride
Tin solidifies 231. 9°C. solidifies 801. 0°C.
Benzophenone boils 306. 0°C. Silver sohdifies 960. 5°C.
Lead solidifies 327. 4°C. Copper solidifies 1083. 0°C.
Weights and Measures Linear Measure — English 12 in. = 1 ft. 3 ft. = 1 yd. b^i vd. or lej^ft. = 1 rod or perch. 320 rods, 1760 yd., 5280 ft. = 1 mile. .Also a number of miscellaneous units, some of which are obso lete, or obsolescent, others are used by certain trades only.
1 For tables of melting points, see pp. 140, 216, 254 and 452. For Se«;er cone data see p. 450.
» Afcording to the National Physical Laboratory.
MATHEMATICS 5
A point = M2 in.
A line = H2 in
A barleycorn = 3^ in.
A palm = 3 in.
A hand = 4 in.
A span = 9 in.
A cubit = 18 in.
A military pace = 30 in.
A link = Koo chain
A knot (nautical mile) = 6086 ft.
A fathom = 6 ft. (United States)
A fathom = 6.08 ft. (British)
1 ell (English) = 45 in.
1 ell (Dutch) = 1 . 094 yd.
1 bolt = 40 yd.
A chain = 4 rods (66 ft.) = 20.11684 meters
A furlong = }4 ™ile
A league = 3 knots
A cable length = 120 fathoms (United States)
A cable length =608 ft. (British) An International Geographical mile = 3^5° ^t equator =
24,350.3 ft. A British nautical mile = 6,080.4 ft.
Linear Measure — French^ 10 millimeters = 1 centimeter 10 dekameters = 1 hektometer 10 centimeters = 1 decimeter 10 hektometers = 1 kilometer 10 decimeters = 1 meter 10 kilometers = 1 myriameter.
10 meters = 1 dekameter
A micron is Hooo mm. ; a millimicron = Hooo micron; 1 angstrom unit = Ho millimicron
Conversion Table, Linear Measure
lin. =2.540005 cm. 1 cm. = 0.3937000 in.
1 ft. = 0 . 3048006 m. 1 m. = 39 . 37000 in. = 3 . 28083 ft.
1 yd. = 0.9144018 ra. 1 m. = 1 . 09361 yd. = 0 . 00062 mi.
1 mi. = 1 . 609347 km. 1 km. = 0. 62137 mi. = 3280. 83 ft.
The old French measures and their equivalents are :
1 toise = 1 .9490366 m. 1 pouce = 2. 706995 cm.
1 pied =0.3248394 m. 1 ligne = 0.225583 cm.
1 toise = 6 pieds = 72 pouces = 864 lignes
* The decimeter, dekameter, hektometer and myriameter are seldom used as compared with the other measures. When the metric system was de vised the meter was supposed to be one tenmillionth part of the quadrant of the earth's surface. However, owing to inaccuracies of measurement, this is only approximately true, and the meter must be defined as the length of a standard bar of platinum kept in Paris, when measured at a temperature of zero dei;rees centigrade.
2 The foot is defined by United States law as being s**)?^ 93 7 meters. Therefore in the United States 1 meter = 39.37 in. exactly. The British equivalent is, however, 1 m. = 39.370113 in. Apparently the British inch and the American inch were intended to be equivalent, but are not, though I nave never heard of any notice being taken of this fact in commercial trans actions. The value 1 meter = 39 .37 in. has been used in all equivalents in this book.
C iMETALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
Square Measure — English
144 sq. in. = 1 sq. ft.
9 sq. ft. = 1 sq. yd. 30.25 sq. vd.\ , ,
272.25 sq.ft. / =lsqrod
160 sq. rd. ]
10 sq. ch. I 1 „„,^
4 roods f =lacre 43,560 sq. ft. J
640 acres = 1 sq. mi.
A square of flooring or roofing = 100 sq. ft.
A section of land = 1 mi. sq.
A township = 36 sq. mi.
A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick
Square Measure — French
100 sq. mm. = 1 sq. cm.
100 sq. cm. = 1 sq. dm.
100 sq. dm. = 1 sq. m. (centar)
100 sq. m. =1 sq. dekameter or ar
100 sq. dekameters = 1 sq. hcktometer (hektar)
lOOsq.hektometcrs = 1 sq. kilometer
Conversion Table, Square Measure
1 centar (1 sq. m.) = 1550 sq. in. = 10.764 sq. ft.
1 ar = 119.6 sq. yd.
1 hectar = 2.47104 acres. 1 acre = 0.40469 hektar
1 sq. cm. = 1.5500 sq. in. 1 sq. in. = 6.4516 sq. cm.
1 sq. meter = 10.76387 sq. ft. 1 sq. ft. = 0.092903 .sq. m.
1 sq. km. = 0.3861 sq. mi. 1 sq. mi. = 2.589998 sq. km.
Cubic Measure — English^
1728 cu. in = 1 cu. ft.
27 cu. ft. = 1 cu. yd.
128 cu. ft =1 cord
50 cu. ft. of square timber = 1 load
40 cu. ft. of unhewn timber = 1 load
A board foot = 1 ft. square X 1 in. thick
Weight — English Avoirdupois
16 drams (dr.) = 1 ounce (oz.) 16 oz. = 1 pound (lb.)
100 lb. = 1 hundredweight (cwt.)
20 cwt. = 1 ton
Troy 24 grains = 1 pennyweight (dwt.) 20 dwt. = 1 oz. Tr. 12 oz. Tr. = 1 lb. Tr. > For French cubic equivalents see under "Measures of Capacity," p. 9.
MATHEMATICS
The Avoirdupois pound = 7000 grains = 14.5833 oz. Tr. The Troy pound = 5760 grains = 13. 1657 oz. Avoir,
The Avoirdupois ounce = 437.5 grains = 0.9115 oz. Tr. 1 ton = 29,166.66 oz. Tr.
1 ton = 0.89287 long ton
1 long ton = 1.12 short tons = 2240 lb. (Troy weight is used in weighing gold, silver, platinum, etc. In weighing precious stones the metric carat = 200 mg., is now used.)
1 barrel of flour = 8 sacks = 196 lb.
1 barrel of pork = 200 lb.
1 barrel of cement = 4 sacks = 376 lb.
10 milligrams 10 decigrams 10 dekagrams
Weights
= 1 centigram
= 1 gram
= 1 hectogram
French
10 centigrams = 1 decigram 10 grams = 1 dekagram
10 hectograms = 1 kilogram^
100 kilograms = 1 metric quintal 1000 kilograms = 1 metric ton (tonne) or millier
Conversion Table, Weight
1 oz. avoir. = 28.34953 grams
1 lb. avoir. = 453.59 grams
1 ton = 907 . 18 kg.
1 gram = 0.035274 oz. avoir. = 0.00220 lb.
1 kg. = 35.27393 oz. avoir. = 2.2046223 lb.
1 metric ton = 1. 102311 tons = 0.9842 long tons
1 grain = 64.799 mg.
Idwt. = 1.55517 g.
1 oz. Troy =31. 1035 g.
lib. Troy = 0.37324kg.
1 gram = 15.4324 gr. = 0.64301 dwt.
1 mg. = 0.64301 dwt. = 0.03215 oz. Tr,
1 kg. = 32 . 15074 oz. Tr. = 2 . 67923 lb. Tr,
The libra used in Spain, Portugal and Spanish America differs slightly from the U. S. pound, ranging from 1.012 in Portugal and Brazil to 1.016 in Cuba and Porto Rico.
The Assay Ton, — A weight used by assayer such that 1 ton (2000 lb.) : 1 oz. Tr. : : 1 A.T. : 1 mg.; i.e., if the assayer weighs
* When the metric system was devised, it was intended that 1 gram should equal the mass of 1 cubic centimeter of water at its greatest density (4°C.) This relation does not exactly hold, and it is necessary to define the gram as the onethousandth part of a standard mass of platinum kept in Paris. At 4°C. the mass of 1 cc. of water differs so slightly from unity that for nearly all calculations no correction is necessary. A liter was in tended to be equal to 1000 cc. but was detined as the volume occupied by a kilogram of water at 4°C. and 760 mm. pressure. It is therefore equivalent to 1000 . 027 CO. (de Lepinay, Benoit and Buisson.)
8 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOJ<:
out assay tons, each milligram of metal recovered represents 1 Trov oz.
1 A.T. = 29.16667 grams On the English system, ton of 2240 lb.
1 A.T. = 32.66667 grams
Apothecaries Weight 20 grains = 1 scruple O)
3 9 =1 dram (3)
8 3 =1 ounce (5)
12 5 =1 lb. Tr.
Apothecaries Measure 60 minims (ITl) = 1 dram 8 drams =1 fluid ounce
16 fl. oz. = 1 pt.
The apothecaries grain is equal to the Troy grain; the scruple to % of the pennyweight.
1 gr. = 64.799 mg. 1 S = 1295.98 mg.
1 3 = 3887.94 mg. 1 fl. oz. = 29.5729 milUliters
1 milliliter (1 c.c.) = 0.3381 fl. oz.
Measures of Capacity — English
Dry Liquid
2 pt. =1 qt. 4 gills = 1 pt.
8 qt. =1 peck 2 pt. =1 qt.
4 pk. = 1 bushel 4 qt. =1 gal.
311^ gal. = 1 barrel (bbl.) U. S.
2 bbl. = 1 hogshead (hhd.)
2 hhd. = 1 pipe
42 gal. = 1 bbl. (Standard Oil Co.), formerly
a tierce 84 gal. (2 tierces) = 1 puncheon
A liquid gallon (U. S.) contains 231 .0 cu. in. An Imperial gallon contains 277.408 cu. in.^ A bushel (U. S.) contains 2150.42 cu. in.
An Imperial bushel contains 2218. 192 cu. in.^ A quarter contains 8 Imperial bu.
Note. — It can be seen that the dry quart contains 673^ cu. in., while the liquid quart contains only 57^ cu. in. There is therefore no royal road to reducing dry measures to wet equivalents, though the ratio is about 1 : IJ (1. 16364).
1 Imperial gal. = 1 . 20094 U. S. gal.
1 U. S. gal. = 0.83268 Imp. gal.
1 Imp. bu. = 1.03151 U. S. bu.
1 U. S. bu. = 0.96945 Imp. bu.
1 gal. (ale or beer) = 1 .2208 U. S. gal.
» Sometimee given 277.274. » Sometimes given 2219.28.
MATHEMATICS
Grains per U. S. gal. X 17. 138 = parts per million
Grains per Imp. gal. X 14.285 = parts per million
Parts per million X 0.0583 = grains per U. S. gal.
Parts per million X 0 . 700 = grains per Imp. gal.
Measures of Capacity — French 1000 cu. mm. = 1 c.c. 1000 c.c. = 1 cu. dm. (liter)
1000 cu. dm. = 1 cu. m. In measuring wood, the cubic meter is called a ster. 10 milliliters = 1 centiliter 10 centiliters = 1 deciliter 10 deciliters = 1 liter 10 liters = 1 dekaliter
10 dekaliters = 1 hectoliter 10 hectoliters = 1 kiloliter
Conversion Tables, Cubic Measiure 1 cu. in. = 16.38720 c.c.
1 c.c. = 0.06102338 cu. in. = 0.0000353 cu. ft. 1 cu. ft. = 0.028317 cu. m. 1 cu. m. = 35.31445 cu. ft. = 1 .30794 cu. yd. 1 cu. yd. = 0.764559 cu. m.
Liquid Equivalents
1 fl. oz. = 29 . 5729 milliliters
1 milliliter = 0.3381 fl. oz. = 0.061025 cu. in.
1 gill = 1 . 1829 deciliters
1 deciliter = 0.8454 gills
1 quart = 0.94633 liters
1 liter = 1.0567 quarts.
1 U. S. gal. = 3.78533 liters
1 dekaliter = 2.6418 gal.
Dry Equivalents
1 pt. = 0.550599 liters
1 deciliter = 0.18162 pt.
1 qt. = 1.10120 liters
inter ■ = 0.90810 quarts
1 pk. =0.08810 hectoliter
1 hectoliter = 2.8378 bu.
1 bu. (U. S.) = 0.352.38 hectoliter
1 kiloliter = 1 . 3079 cu. yd.
Circular and Angular Measure 60 sec. (") => 1 minute (') 60 min. (') = 1 degree (°) 360 deg. (°) = 1 circumference In the higher mathematics another unit is used: 2ir radians = 1 circumference .. 1 radian = 57.2957795° = 57° 17' 44.806"
10 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
Time 60 sec. = 1 min.; 60 min. = 1 hr.; 24 hr. = 1 day 365.242218 solar days = 1 year 29 days 12 hr. 44 min. = 1 lunar month A seconds pendulum = 39.138 in. = 0.9958 meters in the latitude of New York at sea level.
The period of a pendulum is ta / acceleration due to gravity.
, where I is length, and g the
Miscellaneous
20 units = 1 score 12 units = 1 dozen 12 dozen = 1 gross 12 gross = 1 great gross 1 atmosphere = 14.7 lb. per sq. in. = 29.922 in. of mercurv 33.9 ft. of water
24 sheets = 1 quire 20 quires = 1 ream 2 reams = 1 bundle 5 bundles = 1 bale
C.G.S. Units
The unit of force is the dyne. It is that force which applied to a mass of one gram will give it an acceleration of one centi meter in one second.
The unit of work is the erg. This is the work done by one erg acting through a distance of one centimeter. The joule =10' ergs.
A calorie is the heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water from 0°C. to 1°C.
A great calorie (Calorie) is the heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 kg. of water from 0°C. to 1°C.
Unit 
Erg 
Joule 
Kilogram meter (g. = 981) 
Calorie 
Small calorie 
Erg 
1 10' 981.0X10' 418.4X10' 
10' 1 9.81 4184 
1.019X10' 0.1019 1 426.5 
2.. 39011 X10" 2.39011 xio« 2.3446 xio' 1 
2.39011 xio« 2.39011 
Kilogrammeter (g.=981) Calorie 
xio« 2.3446 1000 
The unit magnetic mass or pole is such that placed at a distance of one centimeter from an identical mass, it exercises a repulsion equal to 1 dyne.
The permeabilitj is the ratio of flux density to magnetic intensity.
The unit of electric current in the C.G.S. system is a current that exerts a force of one dyne on a unit magnetic pole placed at the center of an arc of the circuit, 1 cm. long, and 1 cni. radius. The practical unit is the ampere (see below), which is onetenth the C.G.S. unit.
MATHEMATICS 1 1
The C.G.S. unit of quantity is the quantity which in one second is conveyed by a C.G.S. unit of current. The practical unit is the coulomb, the quantity of current passing per second, in a current carrying one ampere. It is onetenth the C.G.S. unit.
The C.G.S. unit of potential difference or electromotive force is the potential difference which exists between two points of a conductor conveying a unit current when one erg of work is done per second. The practical unit is the volt (see below) = 108 X the C.G.S. unit.
The C.G.S. unit of resistance is the resistance possessed by a conductor through which a unit e.m.f. causes a unit current to flow. The practical unit is the ohm (see below) = 10^ X the C.G.S. unit.
The C.G.S. unit of capacity of a condenser is that capacity which gives a unit potential difference between the coatings when either coating has a unit quantity of electricity. The farad is the practical unit and equals 10~^ times the C.G.S. unit.
A Gauss is the unit of field strength, the intensity of field which acts on a unit pole with a force of one dyne. A unit magnetic pole has 47r lines of force proceeding from it. It is equal to gilberts per centimeter length. Gausses = maxwells j area.
A Maxwell is the unit of magnetic flux, the amount of magne tism passing through every square centimeter of a field of unit densitJ^ The weber is 1,000,000 maxwells. If a conductor cuts a magnetic field so that one volt is induced, 100,000,000 maxwells are cut per second.
A Gilbert is the unit of magnetomotive force, the amount
produced by p = 0.7958 ampere turns. The m.m.f. of a coil 47r
is 1.2566 times the ampere turns. <j> = flux in maxwells.
Reluctance is that quantity in a magnetic circuit which limits the flux under a given m.m.f. It corresponds to the resistance in the electric circuit.
The Oersted is the unit of magnetic reluctance, it is the reluctance of a cubic centimeter of an airpump vacuum.
Inductance is the property of a circuit which opposes any change in current flowing by inducing a counterelectromotive force in the circuit at the time the current is changing. The practical unit is the henry (see below) = 10^ X the C.G.S. unit.
PRACTICAL ELECTRICAL UNITS
Ohm — unit of resistance. The International Ohm^ is the resistance offered to an unvarying electric current by a column
'The true ohm ( = 10' electromagnetic C.G.S. units) is apparently the resistance of 106.29 cm. of mercury 1 sq. mm. in section. The 1884 legal ohm = 0.9972 int'l. ohms. The B.A. ohm = 0.9866 int'I. ohm.
A joule is almost equal to the energy expended in one second by an international ampere in an international ohm.
12 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
of mercury at O'C, 14.4521 grams ia mass, of a constant cross section, and of a length of 106.3 cm.
Coulomb — imit of quantity. Equal to one ampere passinjf for one second.
Ampere — unit of current. The International Ampere is the unvarying electric current which, when passed through a solution of nitrate of silver in water, under certain specifications, deposits silver at the rate of 0.00111800 grams per second.
International Volt — unit of pressure. It is that electrical pressure which will steadily produce a oneampere current
through a oneampere resistance. For practical use it is y^oA
of the e.m.f. of the Clark cell at 15°C.
International Watt — unit of energj'. It is the energy ex pended per second by an unvarying electric current of one International Ampere under an electric pressure of an Inter national Volt.
International Farad — unit of capacity. It is the capacity of a conductor which is charged to a potential of one volt by one coulomb of electricity.
International Henry — unit of inductance. It is the induct ance in the circuit when the e.m.f. induced in the circuit is one international volt, while the inducing current varies at the rate of one international ampere per second.
Ohm's Law. — Current in amperes =
Pressure in volts , E
or / =
Resistance in ohms R
Power in watts equals energy of the current multiplied by the voltage.
Direct current — P (watts = E (volts) X / (amperes) E^
Alternating current — singlephase, P = EI X Power factor twophase, P = \/2EI X Power factor (line values; two
wire)
threephase, P = \/'6EI X Power factor Gine values;
three wire)
Units of Force
1 poundal = 13,825 dynes
1 gram's weight = 981 dynes
1 pound's weight = 444,518 dynes
Work and Energy
1 footpound = 1.356 X 10' ergs = 1.356 joules = 0.1383 kilo grammeters 1 watt = 1 joule per second
1 kilogrammeter = 7 . 233 footpounds
MATHEMATICS
13
Weight, Force or Pressure, Combined with Areas
1 atmosphere = 760 mm. of mercury = 29.9212 in. of mercurv = 10 3329 m. of water = 33 . 9006 ft. of water = 1 . 03329 kg. per sq. cm. = 14 . 6969 lb. per sq. in.
1 barie = 1 dyne per sq. cm. = 0.00208870 lb. per sq. ft.
1 footpound = 13.82.55 kg. cm. = 3.306 X IQ^cal.
1 kg. per sq. m. = 14.2234 lb. per sq. in.
1 lb. carbon oxidized to CO2 = 14,544 heat units.
Table of Equivalent Values for Power Expressed in Various English and Metric Units
Watt Kw.
^o.
per seel „ „„„ 'per sec. per sec.;
1 W & t t IB 1 I i
equal to. . . I 1.000;0.001000,0.00134;o. 00136 1 kw. is equal
to 1000.0
1 English (and Amer ican) h.p. . .
1 Continen tal h.p
1 kg.m. per sec
1 ft.lb. per sec
1 kg.cal, per sec
1 B.t.u. per sec 1055.0 1.055 0.415 0.422
746.0
735.0
9.81
1.000 1.34 1.36
0.746 11.000 il.OlS
0.735 0.985 ^1.000
0.00981 0.0131 0.0133 I 1.356:0.00136 0.00182 0.00185
4200.0 4.20 5.61 5.70
0.102 102.0
76.0 75.0 1.000 0.138 427.0 107.6
0.737 0.000238 0.000947 737.0 0.238 0.947
550.0 
0.178 
0.707 
541.0 
0.175 
0.696 
7.233'o.00234 
0.00930 

1.000 0.0003240.00129 

3090.0 '1.000 
'3.968 

778.0 
0.252 
1.000 
Light — velocity of. 299,583 km. per sec. = 186,319 mi. per sec. Wave length, fed light— 5 line— 0 . 000068702 cm. Wave length, violet Ught— i? line— 0 . 000039338 cm . Velocity of sound in drA air = 1090\/l r 0.00367t°C. ft. per sec.
Some Foreign Weights and Measures and the U. S. Equivalents^
1 almude f Portugal) = 4 . 422 gal.
1 arobe (Paraguay) = 25 lb.
1 arroba, dry (Argentine) = 25.3171 lb. 1 arroba, liquid (Cuba, Spain,
Venezuela) =4.263 gal.
1 arshine (Ru.ssia) = 28 in.
1 sq. arshine (Russia) = 5.44 sq. ft.
1 baril (Argentine, Mexico) = 20.079 gal.
1 braca (Brazil) = 2.407 yards
1 bu (Japan) = 0. 119305 in.
1 candy (India) = 529 lb.
> " Foreign Weights, Measures and Moneys
By John J. Macfarlane.
14 METALLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
catty (China. Str. Sett.)
cattj' (Japan)
cattv (Java)
catty (P. 1.)
catty (Sumatra)
centaro (Central America)
chih (China)
cho (Japan)
cuadra (Argentine)
dessiatine (Russia)
doli (Russia)
fanega (Argentine)
fen (China)
fen (sq.) (China)
frasco (Aigentine)
funt (Rufcsia)
go (Japan)
hao (China) sq. hao (China) jo (Japan) ken (Japan) kin (Japan) koku (Japan)
kwan (Japan) legua (Brazil) h (China) Hang (China) lyi (China)
manzana (Costa Rica) marc (Bolivia) maund (Bengal) maund (Bombay) maund (Madras) meou (China) mil (Denmark) milla (Nicaragua, Honduras) momme (Japan) pie (Argentine) pie (Spainj pikul (Borneo, Java) pikul (China, Str. Sett.) pikul (Japan) pikul (F. 1.) pipa (Brazil) pood (Russia) pulgada (Argentine) quintal (Argentina) quintal (Bolivia, Chile, Co lombia, Domin. Rep., Spain) 1 quintal (Brazil)
1.3331b.
1.323 1b.
1.356 1b.
1.39 1b.
2.1181b.
4.2631 gal.
1.049867 ft.
357.916 ft.
4.2 acres
2 . 6997 acres
0 . 685 grains
3.89 bu.
0.12598 in.
0.015181 acres
2 . 5096 quarts
0.9028 lb. = 409 grams
1.270.506 gill Uquid =
0.0198517 peck dry
2.5715 ft.
0.00015181 acres
3.31404 yd.
1.983427 yd.
1.32277 1b. Avoir.
39.7033 gal. hquid =
4.96291 bu. dry
8.26733 1b. Avoir.
4. 102 miles
0.012598 in.
1.31561 oz. Avoir.
0.0015181 acres
1 . 625 acres
0.507 1b.
82 . 2855 lb.
28 1b.
25 1b.
0.15181 acres
4.68 mi.
1.1493 miles
2.4123045 dwt.
0.9478 ft.
0.91407 ft.
135 . 63M lb.
133H lb.
132.277 1b.
139.485 1b.
1.648 quarts
36.11281b.
0.947 in.
101.281b.
101.4 1b. 129.5261b.
MATHEMATICS
15
1 quintal (Costa Rica)
1 quintal (Syria, Turkey)
1 ri (Japan)
1 ri (marine) (Japan)
1 sagene (Russia)
1 sashen (Russia)
1 shaku (Japan)
1 sheng (China)
1 sho (Japan)
1 sun (Japan)
1 tan (Japan)
1 tch'e (China)
1 tchetvert (Russia)
1 to (Japan)
1 ts'onen (China)
1 tsubo (Japan)
1 vara (Argentine)
1 verchok (Russia)
1 verst (Russia)
1 zolotnik (Russia) •
= 101.465 1b.
= 125 lb.
= 2.440338 mi.
= 1 . 1506873 mi.
= 7 ft.
= 7 lb.
= 11.9305424 in.
= 2.7354 liq. gal.
= 1.5881325 qt. liquid =
0.1985166 pecks drv = 1.1930542 in. = 0 . 24507 acre = 12.598 in. = 117,600 sq. ft. = 3.9703313 gal. liquid = 1.2598 in. = 3.953829 sq. yd. = 34. 1208 in. = 1.75 in. = 3,500 ft. = 658 grains
UNITED STATES AND FOREIGN MONEY
(The following figures are based on the gold standard only and do not include e.xchange.)
Argentina Cgold)
Argentina (paper)
Austria
Bolivia
Brazil
Ceylon
Chile
China
Columbian Rep'b. 1 peso
Costa Rica 1 colon
Denmark
Ecuador
Egypt
1 peso 1 peso 1 krone 1 boliviano 1 milreis 1 rupee 1 peso
= SO. 9648 = 100 centavos
= 0.4246 = 100 centavos
= 0.20.3 = 100 holler
= 0.3893 = 100 centavos
= 0.5463 = 1000 reis
= 0.32443 = 100 cents
0.365 = 100 centavos
1 Haikwan tael = IW oz. avoir, of silver = 10 mace
= 1.00 0.4654 1 krone = 0.268
1 Sucre = 0.4867
1 pound (£E) = 4.943
= 100 centavos = 100 centavos = 100 ore = 100 centavos = 100 piastres
France
Germany
Great Britain
Greece
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Hongkong
Hungary
India
Italy
Japan
Mexico
Netherlands
Nicaragua
Norway
Panama
1 franc
1 mark
1 pound (£)
1 drachma
1 peso
1 gourde
1 peso
1 dollar
1 krone
1 rupee (Rs.)
1 lira
1 yen
1 peso
1 guilder
1 peso
1 krone
1 balboa
240 pence!
1000 milliemes
0.193 = 100 centimes
0.238 = 100 pfennig
4.8665 = 20 shillings =
C.193 =100 lepta
0.965 = 100 centavos
0.965 = 100 centimes
0.3979 = 100 centavos
0.463 = 100 cents = 1000 cash
0.2026 = 100 filler
0.32443 = 16 annas = 192 pies'
0.193 = 100 centesimos
0.498 = 100 sen = 1000 rin
0.498 = 100 centavos
0.0402 = 100 cents
0.965 = 100 centavos
0.268 = 100 ore
1 . 00 =2 silver pesos
200 centisinios
4.8665 = lOdinero = 100 centavos
Peru 1 libra (£P)
1 5 shillings = 1 crown; 21 sh. = 1 guinea; 4 farthings =
2 A lakh = 100,000 rupees; a crore = 10,000,000 rupees.
1 penny (d.).
16 MET.\LLURGISTS AND CHEMISTS' HANDBOOK
0.50 = 100 centavos
1.08 = 1000 reis
0.193 = 100 bani
0.515 = 100 kopecks
0.3978 = 100 centavo3
0.193 = 100 centisinios
0.5C77 = 100 cents
0.268 = 100 ore
4.40 = 100 piasters = 4000 paraa
1.0.342 = 100 centavos
0.1930 = lOOcentimos
Philippine 
Is. 
1 peso 
Portugal 
1 milreis 

Roumania 
1 leu 

Russia 
1 ruble 

Salvador 
1 peso 

Spain 
1 peseta 
I
Straits Settlements 1 dollar Sweden 1 krona
Turkey 1 pound (£T)
Uruguay 1 peso
Veneiuela 1 bolivar
COINAGE STANDARDS*
Country
Gold coin
Silver coin
Country
Gold coin
Silver coin
900 900 900.
Abyssinia ,
Argentine
AustriaHungary
Belgium
Bolivia
Brazil
Bulgaria
Canada
Cevlon
Chile
China . . .
Colombia ]900
Congo 900
Corea 900
Costa Rica 1900