National Library of Scotland *B000352669*

Digitized by the Internet Archive

in 2011 with funding from

National Library of Scotland





In Europe anti America.





22, School Street.


Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1861,


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts.

c »..' r., 220»gfFES

% 19 78/^


The author began this work ten years ago, principally for his own edification ; but, as he proceeded in his labors, his manuscript was sought after by many per- sons, who persuaded him to prepare it for the press. There are, doubtless, some mistakes in the work ; as it is impossible at this late day to prepare genealogical statistics with perfect accuracy. There are many omissions ; but he has done his utmost to include all by the name of Reed, with the collateral branches, so far as they could be obtained. He has written hundreds of letters of inquiry, to which he never received a response ; and many others, to which the answers were so meagre, that little information could be obtained from them. He has spent much time and money in travelling to search old records, and has done all in his power to make them as full and complete as possible. Not a few, both ladies and gentlemen, were unable to give the Christian names of grandparents, showing the deplorable neglect of many of their forefathers in preserving records of


family events ; while others have provided him with much that is valuable and interesting, going back several generations. His massive accumulation of correspondence, and his copies of records, show a great variety of taste and disposition ; and they are all preserved as mementoes for the perusal of coming generations.

The origin of the name, and other hypothetical remarks, at the commencement of the work, may be criticized and ridiculed by some who have never de- voted much attention to the subject ; but there is much more evidence to substantiate the theory of the author than a casual observer would suppose. If all the vouchers were inserted, the book would necessa- rily be too large. It is much easier for people to find fault with the work of others than to do it well them- selves.

The body of the work is mostly taken from state, county, town, parish, church, and family records ; but in some cases it consists merely of the oral statements of members of those particular families to which they have reference ; while in most cases, where there were no records, different members of the same branch would differ in many points of their state- ments, and thus make it necessary to search for other proof to establish the facts.

If the subject had been postponed twenty years longer, much that is contained in this volume could


not have been obtained ; for many who, ten years ago, stood as landmarks between the riving and the dead, have gone to their rest.

The engravings have been procured at great expense, and are generally pronounced complete likenesses of those whom they are designed to repre- sent.

The errors, so far as discovered by the author, are noticed at the end of the book. Those who find their individual record incomplete should turn to the Appendix, as all information obtained after print- ing the body of the work had to be thus inserted. The records here comprised are substantially all that can be obtained on the subject ; and the blank leaves are inserted to enable each family to carry out their record in the book for generations to come.


Chapter. Page.

Introduction 1

I. Origin of the Name, and History of the Clans . 9

II. William Reade of Boston, and his Descendants . 41

III. Col. Thomas Read of Salem, and his Descendants 47

TV. William Reade of Woburn, and his Descendants. 61

V. Esdras Reade of Boston, and his Descendants . . 151

VI. John Read of Rehoboth, and his Descendants . . 186

VII. Elias Read, and his Descendants 272

VIII. William Reade of Weymouth, and his Descendants 310

IX. Philip Reade of Weymouth, and his Descendants 414

X. John Reede of Plymouth County 416

XL John Read of Freetown, and his Descendants . . 417

XLI. John Reade and others 427

XIII. John Read of Alexandria, and his Descendants . 429

XIV. John Read, Sen., and his Descendants in America 431 XV. John Read of Norwalk, and his Descendants . . 445

XVI. Joseph of Lynn, and his Descendants 458

XVII. Lyme, Halifax, and Wisconsin Stock 461

XVIII. The Londonderry Reids 464

XIX. Burlington Stock 470

XX. The Reads of the Benjamin Franklin Stock . . 473

XXL The Boothbay Stock 478


Chapter. Page.

XXII. Reeds of various Families 481

XXLU. Reed of the Boston-Police Notoriety .... 496

XXIV. Reed of the " Constitution " and " Guerriere "

Notoriety 498

XXV. Reeds of various Families 500

XXVI. The Lancaster Stock 504

XXVII. Reid of Ethan Allen Notoriety, and others. . 507

XXVIII. Reeds, Reads, or Reids, not fully traced . . . 514

XXIX. Miscellaneous List of Marriages 521

XXX. Josiah Read of Connecticut, and his Descend- ants . . . . 529




HTHE pedigree of different families has been kept up to some extent by almost all nations, so that every man could be called by the peculiar name and relation of his family. So strong was this habit in ancient times, that a man without a pedigree was considered equivalent to being without a parent ; as was Melchisedek, King of Salem. As far as my observation extends, the practice of retaining a pedigree first fell into disuse among the Americans soon after the country began to be settled by European emigrants, who came here during the seventeenth century ; and for the following reasons : First, the most of those who came here were in better circumstances at home than they were after their arrival here ; but, having spent all their means in emigration, they were obliged to remain. Having been misled by designing and interested men to believe that America was a land which possessed every thing desirable, a large proportion of the emigrants were sanguine in the expectation of bettering their temporal condition by emi- gration ; very much as people were misled by exaggerated statements in reference to California, and as they have always been misled by representations in reference to the West. But in former days it cost a fortune to come from



Europe to America ; and those who embarked in such an enterprise generally had to give up all they possessed, or a great proportion of it, to get here. Many of them who had the means returned to England ; but those who had not were obliged to make the best of a bad bargain. They had abandoned all hope or expectation of any remit- tances from Europe. Many had been outlawed, and dared not go back. They had turned their backs on all beyond sea ; and, under such circumstances, it was most congenial to their feelings to bury the whole subject in oblivion. It was accordingly annoying to them to converse on the subject ; and, to a great extent, they refrained from con- versation in reference to these matters in the presence of their children. Their location and pecuniary circumstances also combined to cause the interest in genealogy to abate, as they were scattered over a large extent of country. And what attention and strength was not exercised in defending themselves, their wives and children, from the tomahawk, was required to clear the land, to build the cottages and barns, to dig stumps and stones, to build bridges, and erect meeting-houses and schoolhouses ; and the taste for all kinds of knowledge, not called into im- mediate use to accomplish these and kindred objects, neces- sarily ceased.

When these difficulties ceased in some measure to be objects of solicitude, and they had greatly overcome these almost overwhelming difficulties; when the howl of the wild beast and Indian had become in some degree silenced, and, in their stead, had been reared in every town the parish-church, with its spire pointing towards heaven ; when their children began to move to the sound of the church- going bell, and peace and comfort seemed to dawn upon them, then the French War broke out, with all the ter- rors of the French and Indians combined : and, as soon


as they had overcome the innumerable evils of this war, that of the Revolution commenced, which called into ser- vice all the men that could be spared from the plough ; and much of the labor of the husbandman had to be done by females.

The next generation was agitated by another war with the mother-country ; so that, till recently, the people had no time to spare to study the virtues, the achievements, the mental qualities, the political condition, or physical constitu- tion, of their ancestors. The first white inhabitants of this country were better educated than their children. They were brought up in Europe ; and a large proportion of them, being younger sons of the landed gentry and of wealthy tradesmen, had all the care bestowed upon them necessary in those days to fit them for the various civil and military stations of life, which were at that time filled generally by that class, as was the case with the ecclesiastical. In short, the various responsible offices and duties of life were at that time filled by the younger sons ; and even tradesmen and mechanics were of that class, as none could be put to trades without paying a considerable sum of money in addition to their personal service ; which made mechanical pursuits beyond the reach of the poor.

It was likewise a time of the greatest religious contro- versy ever known in Europe ; and these people had been proscribed on account of their theological opinions. This controversy was carried on not only in public places, but even in private life, and intruded itself on the sacredness of the family circle ; so that, in many cases, a man's foes were emphatically those of his own household. The father would generally be more conservative than his children ; and the elder son, aware of his rights by seniority, would naturally take the course most likely to be in keeping with government and the laws : while the younger sons, with less


of the world to control their course, were not so politic, but more sincere and enthusiastic.

Prom these and kindred circumstances, the controversy was warmest, and the bickerings most severe, in the do- mestic circle. On this account, many left wealthy parents and responsible stations, and sought an asylum in the wilds of America ; and, when they departed from Catholic Eu- rope, they turned their backs on their Catholic friends whom they had left behind.

It was impossible for such people, unaccustomed to hard- ship, and surrounded by wild beasts and savage Indians, to educate their children. Conseq\iently, the first generations of those born in this country could not so well preserve written details, a fact which appears by the church and town records. Even up to the period of the Revolution, education was in so low a state, that many distinguished officers and statesmen were unable to write a legible hand, and others were unskilled in orthography. But, since some attention has been paid to genealogical research, it is found that these persons were descended from illustrious families in Europe.

Since the people of this country have overcome the effects of the various wars in which they have been engaged, more attention has been paid to education ; and, of late, genea- logy has brought many curious and interesting reminiscences to light, and, as the community wakes up to the subject, will probably bring to light many more. Some, who scarcely knew any of their ancestors farther back than grandfather, can now trace their genealogy to the Norman Conquest, and the blood in their veins to noblemen and kings.

There is still in the minds of many a prejudice against paying any attention to the history of their ancestors : but the feeling is fast wearing away ; and the people are now gratified in receiving information on the subject, though


few are willing to devote to it that time and expense which its importance demands.

The question has been often asked me, and doubtless has been put to others, What do you expect to gain by it ? By some I have been asked, if I was induced to devote so much of my time and money to the subject, from the expectation of being able to distribute an English fortune among the Reeds of this country. In answer to all such inquiries, I can say, that though there are large estates in England, which, if they could prove heirship, would go to the Reeds of America, yet, for the want of such proof, none of it will ever be obtained. But I feel compensated, from day to day, by the information which I obtain, and by the satisfaction which it affords me. Though laughed at, and called a monomaniac on the subject, I have received a constant re- muneration in the new discoveries which I have made.

It is the sincere desire of the author, that those of his name and blood may experience as much satisfaction in the perusal of the work as he has had in preparing it ; and that they will regard it, on his part, as a labor of love. He is confident that all who have the blood of the Reeds flow- ing in their veins will feel interested in perusing these pages.

He congratulates his friends that he has been able to demonstrate that the Reeds are of no mean origin ; that, though their connection with thrones and empires has long since ceased to exist, they have been, and are at the present day, a powerful race, and, as a body, have acted well their part on the stage on which they have been placed.

I have learned, by the investigations I have made, the peculiar mould and cast of mind which has shown itself in my ancestors, in different ages and under different circum- stances, for several hundred years ; also their physical strength and developments, the adaptedness of my race to


certain occupations, and their average length of life. I can say from observation, that, unless through gross careless- ness, but few of them die of pulmonary complaints. They generally live to old age ; eighty-five or ninety, or even a hundred years, being nothing unusual. They are capable of great endurance, especially under opposition ; and possess a determined will and perseverance, which generally carry them through whatever they mean to accomplish. I have seen much in them that is praiseworthy, much worth imitation, and less to be condemned.

The race of Reeds was originally of large and almost gigantic size and strength. This is supported by the ac- counts we have of them when they fought the Caledonians and Romans. Their fiery and poisonous darts struck terror into the hearts of the Roman soldiers, and put them to flight. Ancient statues also represent them to be of an uncommon size ; and, at the present day, they are generally taller than the average of men.

They are to be found in all parts of the civilized world, especially in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the adjacent islands, as well as in Germany and America. They are mixed witli all classes of society, and pursue all branches of business. In intellect they are above mediocri- ty. Some are in possession of great wealth, and only a few of them are really what is called poor. They have generally been found ready, in times of emergency, to place themselves in the front rank of danger, in order to defend their country and its laws ; and have been always willing to encounter difficulty and hardship for the community, being strangers to fear, and exhibiting their true character best when opposed or persecuted. An instance of this force of will is exhibited in the conduct of Gen. Reid, of Londonderry, N.H. He had been appointed by Gov. Sul- livan Commandei'-in-ohief of the troops raised to put down


Shay's Rebellion. The townsmen of Gen. Reid sympa- thized strongly with the Shay party, and were very indig- nant at Gen. Reid for accepting the appointment. On the succeeding night, when people might be supposed to be in sound sleep, he saw from his chamber-window a large number of men approaching the house, armed with all man- ner of offensive weapons, evidently with an intent against his person. He raised the window, and told them that the man who advanced another step would be shot. His man- ner and known determination of character convinced them at once that he would act as he said, and that they were fortunate in being thus timely discovered by him when they were at such a safe distance. He then took advantage of the impression he had made, to give them some wise and wholesome advice relative to their duty as citizens ; and, when he had brought his harangue to a close, the parties separated, the mob to their several homes, and he to quiet slumber. The next sabbath morning, he received an early call from the venerable pastor of the parish to suggest the propriety of his staying at home that day, on account of the fury of the populace ; but his reply was, that he should be in church at the proper hour. He was accord- ingly there ; but his determined countenance and his repu- tation were sufficient to keep the people under restraint, and no violence was done to him. He lived long enough to convince his townsmen of the justness of the cause he had espoused ; and they loved and respected him the more for his independence of character.

But few of those bearing the name of Reed have ever been a public charge, or inmates of penitentiaries. They have been usually of a religious turn of mind, being firm supporters of the institution of the gospel ; but they are fond of mirth and fun, a propensity which seems to run through all of the name within my observation.


Having gone thus far, I hope to be indulged in noting one custom which has to some extent prevailed among the Reeds : I mean that of their marrying relatives. This practice grew out of the exclusiveness of society in Puritan times, and perhaps, in some cases, to save property in the family : but its consequences have been injurious ; many of the offspring of such marriages dying in infancy, early youth, or middle age, and but few of them living to ad- vanced years ; to say nothing of cases where the effect has been still more melancholy.




T)EED, Read, Reid, Rede, Red, Rad, Rheade, Rheadus, -*-*' Wrede, Whrede, Reda, Rada, Redha, Wada, Wrade, Raad, Ried, are all derived from the word Rhea, which had its origin in Phoenicia ; having been used soon after the dispersion of the people in consequence of the confusion of language at Babylon. Rhea was a name given to the Goddess Ops, the daughter of Ccelus and Terra. She was the sister and wife of Saturn, by whom she had Vesta, Ceres, Juno, Pluto, Neptune, &c, whom her husband de- voured. Her next son was Jupiter. Her residence was on Cybele, one of the mountains of Phrygia in Asia Minor. She was worshipped in that part of the world, and was a ruling deity. Her name was in some form attached to many persons and places in Phoenicia and Asia Minor, and was identified with government and rulers. The na- tions that were her votaries became more advanced in commerce and civilization than those around them.

Across the corner of the Mediterranean Sea stood the city of Tyre, the capital of ancient Phoenicia, as its name implies ; and Ruad, or Raad, was in its neighborhood. The



word Tyre probably meant the ruling city, or the city of the tyrant, or king. All governments were then despotic. " King " and " tyrant " were synonymous terms ; and it only became necessary to know that a city or country had a tyrant to know that he was a king : and the fact of his being a king also gave the assurance that he was a tyrant ; each of the words implying one who ruled. The word Esau seems to be the word " red," or " read," in another dialect ; and the Red Sea is in some books called the Read Sea, as was also the Arabian Sea. The name Esau meant " the elder," or one having the rights of primogeniture ; as Jacob meant " the younger," or one without those rights. Tlie rights of seniority were very early established, and the elder was in all cases considered the ruler ; while the Jacobins, or Jameses, or the younger, were the subjects. Esau was called the Red, being one of the greatest men of his time ; his country, Edom, or Red ; as the Erythraean Sea, contiguous to his dominions, was called the Read or Red Sea.

Phoenicia, Edom, and Asia Minor, were in advance of their neighbors in commerce and civilization. They so far excelled in manufactures and colors, that the rulers of other countries sought their fabrics for their kiugly robes ; and thus the passage of Scripture : " Who is this that cometh from Edom with dyed garments ? " &c. These dyed garments were called red, having reference to Edom, or the country, with a ruler or king ; as the fabrics of the present day are called damask. The word " read " and its affinities are used at the present day among many nations in that part of the world.

One of the principal cities of Persia is called by that name ; and some of the rulers of India have a title which probably originated from the same source as " raja," or " rajah," for king. The word has at times been partly


altered for the sake of euphony, or to suit the idiom of other dialects, and has been more or less connected with other words, making a union of both definitions : as, Ethel- red, or Reed the Good ; Conrad, or Reed the Powerful ; Eldred, or Reed the Elder ; Remus, belonging to the State ; and Regina, Queen.

Among the class of words belonging to this stock, in addition to those already mentioned, are Wraid,' Rade, Gerard, Gerarden, Rath, regium, reign, regent, regalia, reason, rhetoric; and also the compound of other words, as Erythrasan, Tyrrhenian, Reate, Rages (now called Rei), Regia, Rhenus, Rhedarian, Rheidlingine, Reedel (or Riddle), Redesdale, Dalraid, Dalreda, and many others.

At a later period, the word became more extended in its signification, and implied counsel, advice, wisdom, &c. Still later, it meant one who could read, or the act of read- ing ; as so few understood the art of reading, that one Bible was sufficient for a parish ; and, the holy book being chained to the desk, a person would be employed to read as a clerk. This last expression gave rise to the word " clergy," or " clergyman ; " meaning one who can read. The art of reading was considered so beneficial to the public, that all who understood it were entitled to the bene- fit of clergy ; which phrase meant boring in the hand, or other corporeal punishment, for crimes committed, instead of death.

The following is the definition given by Noah Webster :

" Sax. reed, rad, red, speech, discourse, counsel, advice, knowledge, benefit, reason ; rcedan, redan, to read, to decree, to appoint, to command, to rule or govern, to conjecture, to give or take counsel ; arcedan, to read, to tell, to narrate; geraedan, to read, to consult; gerad, mode, con- dition or state, reason, ratio or account, knowledge, instruction or learn- ing, and, as an adjective or participle, knowing, instructed, ready, suited ; gerad beon, to be ready, to accord or agree ; geradod, excited, quick. These significations unite this word with ready ; which see. Ger. rede,


speech, talk, account ; reden, to speak. Dut. rede, speech ; reden, rea- son. Dan. rede, account and ready. Ger. bereden, to berate; rath, advice, counsel, a council or senate ; raihen, to advise, to conjecture or guess, to solve a riddle. Dut. raad, counsel, advice ; raaden, to counsel. Swed. rod, Dan. raad, counsel ; rada, raader, to counsel, to instruct. Wei. rJiaith, straight, right (that is, set right), decision, verdict; rheitheg, rhetoric, from rhaitli. Dan. ret, law, justice, right, reason. Swed. rati, ratta, id. Ir. radh, a saying ; radham, to say, tell, relate. Wei. adraivz, to tell or rehearse. Gr. fiea, for jie8o, to say or tell, to flow; {njTop, a speaker, a rhetorician. Goth, rodyan, to speak. The primary sense of read is, to speak, to utter ; that is, to push, drive, or advance. This is also the primary sense of ready; that is, prompt, or advancing quick. The Sax. gerad, ready, accords also in elements with the Wei. rhad, Lat. gratia ; the primary sense of which is, prompt to favor, advancing towards, free. The elements of these words are the same as those of ride, and Lat. gradior, &c. The sense of reason is secondary, that which is uttered, said, or set forth ; hence counsel also. The Swed. ratta, Dan. ret, if not contracted words, are from the same root."

The present different methods of spelling the word arise, in a great measure, from fancy ; there being not less than eleven orthographical forms, in which the natural result is the same. The mode of spelling in use by our Puritan ancestors was usually Reade, but, in some cases, Reede ; and one of them spelled it Rede. One who figured with Napoleon I. spelled his name Wrede. A Bavarian general, who fought against Napoleon at the head of the Bavarian troops, wrote it Reid. His biographers, however, sometimes wrote it Ried. The Irish formerly spelled it Reedha, or Redha ; from which came " ready." The Scotch method was formerly Raid. The mode of spelling the name in this country has gradually assumed one of the three follow- ing forms ; namely, Read, Reed, and Reid : but it affords no clew to the history of the word, as different members of the same family use all these methods.

It was common, in the infancy of governments, for kings and princes, who had been vanquished in the more civilized countries, to steal away with their effects and retainers, to


seek an asylum in the wilds of Europe, and, by superior skill, flattery, and strategem, or by marriage, to work them- selves into the good graces of the barbarous tribes among whom they sought shelter : as was the case with Dido, the Carthaginian queen, wbo fled from her oppressive brother Pygmalion, the King of Tyre, after he had murdered her husband ; or like JEneas, who, after the sacking and de- struction of Troy, sought a place of settlement, and finally presented his suit to Latinus, the King of the Latins, for the hand of Lavinia, his only daughter, by that alliance becoming successor to the throne of his father-in-law, and ancestor to the founder of the Roman Empire.

Many more instances might be named where vanquished rulers became refugees among an uncivilized and barbarous people, and worked their way into power by dint of su- perior skill or valor : as Cecrops, the founder of Athens ; Cadmus the Phoenician, who inti'oduced alphabetic writing into Greece, and founded Thebes in Boeotia ; Danaus, the founder of Argos ; Pelops the Phrygian, whose descendants, intermarrying with those of Tyndareus, King of Lacedas- mon, acquired the ascendency in Greece.

About fourteen hundred years before the Christian era, Teucer, a native of Crete (now Candia), led, in time of fa- mine, a company to a promontory on the shore of the Hellespont, and became the founder of the Trojans. He introduced the worship of Cybele, who, according to hea- then mythology, was the mother of the gods ; and gave to the mountains of Phrygia the name of Ida, from a moun- tain by that name in Crete ; and to many other locations Cretan names, among which was Miletus, a city so called, as tradition says, from Miletus, the son of Apollo, but pro- bably from a city of that name in the island. The goddess was called Cybele from Mount Cybele in Phrygia, and was believed to be the common parent of all the inhabitants of


the earth. She was called Rhea from her being the ruling deity, and from the benefits and patronage she distributed to all her votaries. The promontory on which Teucer landed and settled was called Rhaeteum. This Cybele became the tutelar deity of that region. These emigrants were a commercial people, and were called Milesian mer- chants. One method used in those times to increase trade was to establish colonies in other parts of the world, and to extend traffic through them ; which was done by the inhabitants of Miletus and other commercial cities.

A colony of this kind was established in Italy, the founder of which was Tyrrhenus. The city of Reate (now Rieti) was built by this colony, as were also Ravenna and Veii. The sea contiguous was called the Tyrrhenian Sea. This colony was vanquished by the Gauls about three hundred and eighty-nine years before Christ ; and a portion fled to the north of Italy, where they established their new home, and called it Rha3tia, which comprised what is now the Tyrol and a part of Bavaria. One portion of the Alps is, at the present time, called the Rhaatian Alps. The inhabitants of ancient Rhaatia were called Rhedarians, a name which was undoubtedly derived originally from Rhea. The river Rhine has its source in ancient Retia, and was formerly called Rhenus. The government of Rhretia was made tributary to Rome, by Nero, in the year of Christ 50 ; and the inhabitants were overrun and partially conquered by the Alemauni, or Germans, about the commencement of the third century. Some of the remnant of the nation of Rhedarians continued to lurk about their old homes ; and were finally overrun by Otho, Emperor of Germany, in the tenth century. In time, they became amalgamated with their conquerors ; but some of their ancient towns and cities retained their former names, being slightly altered to suit the idiom of the languages now in use. The Alemanns


were in their turn superseded in the sixth century by an association of German tribes called Bavarians. This ac- counts for the existence of Reads in Bavai-ia, and for names of places in Bavaria which retain the name in connection with some other word indicating their location or history : as Rednitz, on the borders of Regia ; and Reidlinggine, meaning " the place of the Reids." It is a very common name in the German States, and is abbreviated from Rheda- riurn. Some of the descendants of the ancient Rhedarians may have found their way to England at the time of the Saxon invasion, and retained the name ; but I think it is very clear that the Reads of England, Scotland, and Ire- land, went there by a different route.

About fourteen or fifteen hundred years before the Chris- tian era, there prevailed a general fever for Western emi- gration, which was resorted to by tribes, who selected some new location in order to get better feeding-places for their flocks, or for purposes of plunder. The only method then known of obtaining possession of a desired spot was by what we now term " fillibustering ; " as was the case with the Cretan Teucer and his company, from whom arose the Rhedarians, Dalraids, Reedhas, or Reeds. The advent of the Israelites into the land of Canaan was in keeping with the spirit of the times. The stronger would drive out the weaker ; and the vanquished were under the necessity of expelling some nation weaker than themselves, in order to gain a habitation : and thus a general commotion prevailed.

The children of Israel fixed on the land of Canaan for their portion ; and the Phoenician States, comprising Tyre and Sidou, were set off to the tribe of Ashur. Though these never got possession of either, their conquests in the neighborhood, and almost certain success in every engage- ment, filled the minds of the Phoenicians with fear. The latter were a commercial people ; their property consisting


of ships and merchandise, with silver and gold, precious stones, &c.

The people generally were very ignorant of the country ; and the popular opinion was that the limits of the world in this direction were what were called the Pillars of Hercules (now Gibraltar) and a mountain on the opposite side of the straits. This place was supposed to be the gates, or entrance, to the infernal regions, or dominions of Pluto ; but, to the Phoenician or Milesian merchants, tins belief was known to be ignorant superstition. The Tyrians had esta- blished a colony a little beyond the gates, to which they gave the name of Gades (now Cadiz), where they traded, and ex- tended their commerce through the colonists to the natives of Spain. This place became a rendezvous for their ship- ping in sailing and trading along the coast ; and while the other inhabitants of Asia, Europe, and Africa, knew com- paratively nothing of that section, the Phoenicians and Milesians had become fully acquainted with the coast of Ireland.

About five hundred years before the Christian era, the Athenians having burned the city of Sardis, the capital of Lydia, one of the provinces of the Persian Empire, the Persians became enraged, and began to invade the Grecian States contiguous to them with an immense army. The city of Miletus was next in importance to that of Tyre, and was one of the twelve cities which constituted the confede- racy of Ionia, one of the Grecian States. A company of merchants from Miletus, Erythras, and other confederate cities of Ionia, rather than suffer the evils of a Persian inva- sion, fled with their shipping, effects, and retainers. They visited the friendly colonies along their route, and made headquarters at Gacles ; and, from that place, an expedition was fitted out against Ireland, which they conquered, and divided into two kingdoms. The capital of one they called


Ballyreda, which is in the county of Westmeath, and, in English, means Reedstown : the capital of the other kingdom was Regia Altera (now Limerick). These invaders were called Gadelians by the Romans, because they came upon the Roman frontier through the gates of the infernal regions, and were believed to be the subjects of old Pluto.

The figure drawn by St. Paul, in describing the armor of God necessary to withstand the fiery darts of the wicked, may have had reference to these fillibusters, as it describes their weapons and mode of warfare. Their most ancient coat-of-arms also had upon it the poisoned or bloody dart. The Romans, also having a nation of Rhedarians on their frontier in Italy, were under the necessity of distinguishing them by different names ; and the name of Gadelian was a very proper phrase to express the character of the people referred to. The inhabitants of ancient Erin called them Dalredas, or Dalredhas. The Caledonians called them Dal- raids. On account of their intruding themselves upon the ancient inhabitants, and taking possession of their estates, they were called Scuits, or " wanderers," a phrase which gave name to Scotland. Surnames were not in use till about the year 1170 ; but clans had appropriate names, which some retained ; and others took such names as had reference to their location, occupation, or some peculiarity or achievement.

The Dalraids crossed over from Ireland to Caledonia, and so annoyed the Caledonians and the Romans, that, in order to keep them back, the latter built the wall called Agricola's, running from the Frith of Forth to the Clyde. Prince Reda and his knights scaled the wall, and put the Romans to flight, A.D. 180. After he had got possession of that part of England and Caledonia, the Romans (A.D. 210) built the wall, running from Newcastle to Carlisle, called Adrian's.



The Dalraids kept possession of the territory between the two walls, constituting a portion of the county of Northum- berland. They finally conquered Caledonia, A.D. 843 ; and the Britons, as a sort of reproach, afterwards called it Scuitland, or a land of interlopers, or wanderers. The predatory excursions of these people were called " raids." .

The Reads, or Reeds, of England descended from the above Raids, Reeds, or Reedhas ; and I am able to trace the principal families to them.

The river Tyne, in the north of England, is so called from its having tynes, or branches, one of which is called North Tyne ; another, South Tyne. A third branch, taking its rise in Carterfell, and other highlands between England and Scotland, is the river Reed. The valley through which the stream winds its way to its mouth is Redesdale, comprising a portion of Northumberland. This territory formed the principal seat of the border wars. On the banks of the river Reed was fought the bloody battle of Otterburne, or Otterbrook, at the junction of a small stream by that name with the Reed Waters, as the river is called by Sir Walter Scott. This battle is sometimes called the battle of Chevychase ; meaning a chase, or park, for deer. Upon the edge of Carterfell a mountain between England and Scotland is Reed's Square, a corruption of wear, a Scotch phrase for a fort or castle, named in honor of Sir Reginald Reed, who was distinguished in the Border wars. Following the stream down, the ruins of several Reed castles and fortifications may be seen. Some splendid castles still occupied by persons of the same name and blood are also found ; among which is Chipchase Castle, not far from the junction of the Reed with the Tyne.

It may not be inappropriate here to give some further description of the territory between the wall of Agricola and that of Adrian ; it being the hive from which a large


portion of the ancestors of the English and American Reeds originated. It is bounded east by the North Sea, and extends westerly to the river Tweed, on the borders of Scotland ; southerly to the Cheviot Hills, Carterfell, and the disputed grounds ; easterly by the river Tyne and Adrian's Wall ; and forms a barony by the name of Redes- dale. John Thomas Freeman Mitford a descendant of Robert Mitford, otherwise Robert of Redesdale is the present Baron of Redesdale ; who was born Sept. 9, 1785, and succeeded to the barony on the death of his father, Jan. 16, 1830. He is a prominent member of the House of Lords.

The scenes in Scott's novels and poetical works are laid here. The territory is rich in monuments of the past, in the relics of the superstitious ceremonies of the Druids, and in the ruins of ancient Roman roads, fortifications, and towns. The wild and unfrequented glens, desolate moors, interspersed with rich alluvial valleys, splendid towns, villages, and castles ; chases, parks, and forests ; with the history of momentous events, make Redesdale a romantic and interesting spot. This is the first starting-point of the Reeds of England and Scotland. Many of the name still remain there, scattered through the towns, cities, and rural districts.

Among the relics of former days at Risingham, the Roman name of which is Habitancum, on the banks of the river Reed, upon an eminence covered with scattered birches and fragments of rock, there is cut in alto relievo a remarkable figure called Robin of Redesdale ; which, if adapted to our language, would be Robert Reed. Tradi- tion says he was murdered by his brother, who lived at Woodburn (otherwise Woodbrook), an adjoining parish. The figure represents a man of large size, dressed in armor, and called by the peasantry in the neighborhood " the


Giant." This Robin of Redesdale (meaning the Dale of Prince Rheda) flourished in the fifteenth century, and was associated with Earl Warwick. He fought and conquered the Earl of Pembroke, in the year 1470, at Danesmore, near Edgecoat in Northamptonshire, about three miles from Banbury. His name was Robert ; and he took the name of Mitford, from a fording-place near his residence, to distin- guish him from another of the same name. The monu- ment was on his own estate, and intended to perpetuate his memory for his valor and success in the Border wars.

Further up the river is the Pringle, a small stream which empties into the Reed. Tradition says that Percival or Percy Reed, Esq., fell into the hands of a company of moss-troopers, who robbed and murdered him at Bating- hope, a place on the banks of this stream ; and that his spirit haunts the Pringle.

Another legend is, that Mr. Reed, of Bowland, a gen- tleman of landed property in the Vale of Gala, was prosecuted for a very considerable sum, the accumulated arrears of teind, or tithe, for which he was said to be indebted to a noble family, the titulars of the tithes. Mr. Reed was strongly impressed with the belief that his father had in his lifetime, by a form of process peculiar to the law of Scotland, purchased these lands ; and that the present prosecution was groundless. But after an industrious search among his papers, an investigation of public records, and a careful