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ENGLISH

(MEMOIRS OF BABUR).

THE BABUR-NAMA IN

OTHER ORIENTAL WORKS

HENRY BEVERIDGE* (primus), Advocate

A Comprehensive History of India 3 vol. London and Glasgow, 1862. 5

HENRY BEVERIDGE* (secundus), Indian Civil Service,

retired

Akbar-nama trs. (Persian), Calcutta, 1894-1921.

ANNETTE SUSANNAH BEVERIDGE

Kaiser Akbar trs. (German), Calcutta, 1890.

Humayun-nama Pers. text ed. and trs. RAS. 1902. (Out of print.)

Bibi Brooke’s Key of the Hearts of Beginners trs. (Persian), London, 1908.

Notes on the MSS. of the Babur-nama (Turki), JRAS. 1900—2-5-6-7-8-9.

The Babur-nama Facsimile edited and indexed for the Gibb Trust, London, 1905.

* See Bibliography of Dunfermline (Erskine Beveridge (secundus), LL. D.).

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The Babur-nama in English (Memoirs of Babur)

Translated from the original Turki Text OF

Zahiru'd-din Muhammad Babur Padshah Ghazi

By

ANNETTE SUSANNAH BEVERIDGE

Issued in Four Fascicali:—Farghana 1912—Kabul 1914—Hindustan 1917—Preface, Indices, etc.

1921. IV: 5-23. Vol. I SOLD BY

LUZAC & CO., 46, Great Russell Street, London. 1922

Chis work

4

is dedicate to

Babur’s

fame.

STEPHEN AUSTIN AND

“ye

ws

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PREFACE : Introductory.—Cap. I. Babur’s exemplars in the

Arts of peace, p. xxvii.—Cap. II. Problems of the mutilated Babur-nama, p. xxxii—Cap. III. The Turki MSS. and work connecting with them, p. xxxviii.— Cap. IV. The Leyden and Erskine “Memoirs of Baber”, p. lvii— Postscript of Thanks, p. Ix.

SECTION I—FARGHANA

899 AH.—Oct. 12th 1493 to Oct. 2nd 1494 Ap.—Babur’s age at

the date of his accession—Description of Farghana (pp. 1 to 12)—Death and biography of ‘Umar Shaikh (13 to 19 and 24 to 28)—Biography of Yinas Chaghatai (18 to 24) Babur’s uncles Ahmad Mivdn-shahi and Mahmiid Chaghataz (The Khan) invade Farghana—Death and biography of - Sige sean of his successor, his brother Mahmid . ; ; . 1-42

900 AH.—Oct. 2nd 1494 to Sep. 24st 1495 AD.—Invasion_ of

Farghana continued Babur’s adoption of orthodox observance— Death and biography of Mahmiid Wiran-shahi —Samarkand affairs—revolt of Ibrahim Sarai defeated— Babur visits The Khan in Tashkint—tribute collected from the Jigrak tribe—expedition into Atratipa . . 43-56

901 AH.—Sep. 21st 1495 to Sep. 9th 1496 ap.—Husain Bai-

gara’s campaign against Khusrau Shah—Babur receives Aizbeg sultans—Revolt of the Tarkhans in Samarkand— Babur’s first move for Samarkand , . 3/-64

902 AH.—Sep. 9th 1496 to Aug. 30th 1497 AD.—Babur’s second

903

move for Samarkand—Dissensions of Husain Bai-gara and his sons—Dissensions between Khusrau Shah and Mas‘id Mivan-shiht 3 : : . 65-71

AH.—Aug. 30th 1497 to Aug. 19th 1498 AD.—Babur’s second attempt on Samarkand is successful—Description of Samarkand (pp. 74 to 86)—his action there—Mughils demand and besiege Andijan for Babur’s half-brother Jahangir—his mother and friends entreat his help—he leaves Samarkand in his cousin ‘Ali’s hands—has a relapse of illness on the road and is believed dying—on the news Andijan is surrendered by a Mughil to the Mughil faction Having lost Samarkand and Andijan, Babur is hospitably entertained by the Khujandis—he is forced to dismiss Khalifa—The Khan (his uncle) moves to help him but is

Vili

CONTENTS

persuaded to retire—many followers go to Andijan where were their families—he is left with 200-300 men—his mother and grandmother and the families of his men sent to him in Khujand—he is distressed to tears—The Khan gives help against Samarkand but his troops turn back on news of Shaibani—Babur returns to Khujand—speaks of his ambition to rule—goes in person to ask The Khan’s help to regain Andijan—his force being insufficient, he goes back to Khujand—Affairs of Khusrau Shah and the Timirid Mirzas—Affairs of Husain Bai-gara and his sons —Khusrau Shah blinds Babur’s cousin Mas‘id—Babur curses the criminal : . 72-96

904 AH.—Aug. 19th 1498 to Aug. 8th 1499 Ap.—Babur borrows

Pashaghar for the winter and leaves Khujand—rides 70-80 miles with fever—a winter’s tug-of-war with Samarkand— his force insufficient, he goes back to Khujand—unwilling to burthen it longer, goes into the summer-pastures of Aiuratipa—invited to Marghinan by his mother’s uncle ‘Ali-dost—a joyful rush over some 145 miles near Marghinan prudent anxieties arise and are stilled—he is admitted to Marghinan on terms—is attacked vainly by the Mughil faction—accretions to his force—helped by The Khan—the Mughils defeated near Akhsi—Andijan recovered—Mughiills renew revolt—Babur’s troops beaten by Mughils—Tambal attempts Andijan. . 97-107

905 AH.—Aug. 8th 1499 to July 28th 1500 AbD.—Babur’s cam-

paign against Ahmad Zamdéal and the Mughil faction—he takes Mazi—Khusrau Shah murders Bai-sunghar Wirvan- shahi—Biography of the Mirza—Babur wins his first ranged battle, from Tambal supporting Jahangir, at Khiban— winter-quarters—minor successes—the winter-camp broken up by Qambar-i-‘ali’s taking leave— Babur returns to Andijan—The Khan persuaded by Tambal’s kinsmen in his service.to support Jahangir—his troops retire before Babur—Babur and Tambal again opposed—Qambar-i-‘ali again gives trouble—minor action and an accommodation made without Babur’s wish—terms of the accommodation— The self-aggrandizement of ‘Ali-dost Wughui/—Babur’s first marriage—a personal episode—Samarkand affairs—‘Ali quarrels with the Tarkhans—The Khan sends troops against Samarkand—Mirza Khan invited there by a Tarkhan—‘Ali defeats The Khan’s Mughiils—Babur invited to Samarkand —prepares to start and gives Jahangir rendezvous for the

906

CONTENTS ix

_attempt—Tambal’s brother takes Aish—Babur henves this

lesser matter aside and marches for Samarkand—Qambar- i-‘ali punishes himself—Shaibani reported to be moving on Bukhara—Samarkand begs wait on Babur—the end of ‘Ali-dost Babur has news of Shaibani’s approach to Samarkand and goes to Kesh—hears there that ‘Ali’s Aizbeg mother had given Samarkand to Shaibani on condition of his marriage with herself . . 108-126

AH.—July 28th 1500 to July 17th 1501 Ap.—Shaibani murders ‘Ali a son and two grandsons of Ahrari’s murdered Babur leaves Kesh with a number of the Samarkand begs—is landless and isolated—takes a perilous mountain journey back into Airatipa—comments on the stinginess shewn to himself by Khusrau Shah and another —consultation and resolve to attempt Samarkand—Babur’s dream-vision of success—he takes the town by a surprise attack—compares this capture with Husain Baz-gara’s of Heri—his affairs in good position—birth of his first child— his summons for help to keep the Atizbeg down—literary matters his force of 240 grows to allow him to face Shaibani at Sar-i-pul—the battle and his defeat—Mughils help his losses—he is besieged in Samarkand—a long blockade—great privation—no help from any quarter— Futile proceedings of Tambal and The Khan . 127-145

907 AH.—July 17th1501 to July 7th 1502 AD.—Babur surrenders

Samarkand—his sister Khan-zada is married by Shaibani— incidents of his escape to Dizak—his 4 or 5 escapes from peril to safety and ease—goes to Dikh-kat in Auratipa— incidents of his stay there—his wanderings bare-head, bare- foot—sends gifts to Jahangir, and to Tambal a sword which later wounds himself—arrival from Samarkand of the families and a few hungry followers—Shaibani Khan raids in The Khan’s country—Babur rides after him fruitlessly— Death of Nuyan Kikildash—Babur’s grief for his friend— he retires to the Zar-afshan valley before Shaibani—reflects on the futility of his wanderings and goes to The Khan in Tashkint—Mughil conspiracy against Tambal Mughul— Babur submits verses to The Khan and comments on his uncle’s scant study of poetic idiom—The Khan rides out against Tambal—his standards acclaimed and his army numbered—of the Chingiz-tuird—quarrel of Chiras and Begchik chiefs for the ea of Ce Ne ee river reached . ; . 146-156

x

908 AH.—July 7th 1502 to June 26th 1503 AD.—Babur com-

CONTENTS

ments on The Khan’s unprofitable move—his poverty and despair in Tashkint—his resolve to go to Khitai and ruse for getting away—his thought for his mother—his plan not accepted by The Khan and Shah Begim—The Younger Khan (Ahmad) arrives from Kashghar—is met by Babur— a half-night’s family talk—gifts to Babur—the meeting of the two Khans—Ahmad’s characteristics and his opinion of various weapons— The Khans march into Farghana against Jahangir’s supporter Tambal—they number their force—Babur detached against Aish, takes it and has great accretions of following An attempt to take Andijan frustrated by mistake in a pass-word—Author’s Note on pass-words—a second attempt foiled by the over-caution of experienced begs—is surprised in his bivouac by Tambal —face to face with Tambal—his new gosha-gir his dwindling company—wounded—left alone, is struck by his gift-sword escapes to Atish—The Khan moves from Kasan against Andijan—his disposition of Babur’s 4ands— Oambar-i-‘ali’s counsel to Babur rejected—Babur is treated by the Younger Khan’s surgeon—tales of Mughil surgery Qambar -i- ‘ali flees to Tambal in fear through his unacceptable counsel Babur moves for Akhsi—a lost chance—minor actions—an episode of Pap—The Khan’s do not take Andijan—Babur invited into Akhsi—Tambal’s brother Bayazid joins him with Nasir 1/zran-shahi—Tambal asks help from Shaibani—On news of Shaibani’s consent the Khans retire from Andijan—Babur’s affairs in Akhsi— he attempts to defend it—incidents of the defence—Babur wounded—unequal strength of the opponents—he flees with 20-30 men—incidents of the flight—Babur left alone—is overtaken by two foes—his perilous position—a messenger arrives from Tambal’s brother Bayazid—Babur expecting death, quotes Nizami—(the narrative breaks off in the middle of the verse) . : . 157-182

Trauslator’s Note.—908to909 AH.—1503 to 1504 Ap. —Babur will have been rescued—is with The Khans in the battle and defeat by Shaibani at Archian—takes refuge in the Asfara hills—there spends a year in misery and poverty events in Farghana and Tashkint Shaibani sends the Mughil horde back to Kashgar—his disposition of the women of The Khan’s family—Babur plans to go to Husain Béi-gara in Khurasan—changes his aim for Kabil

182-185 [End of Translator’s Note.]

CONTENTS xi

SECTION II.—KABUL

910 AH.—June 14th 1504 to June 4th 1505 Ap.—Babur halts on an alp of Hisar—enters his 22nd (lunar) year—delays his march in hope of adherents—writes a second time of the stinginess of Khusrau Shah to himself—recalls Sherim Taghai Mughil’s earlier waverings in support—is joined by Khusrau Shah’s brother Baqi Beg—they start for Kabul— Accretions of force their families left in Fort Ajar (Kahmard)—Jahangir marries a cousin—Baqi advises his dismissal to Khurasan—Babur is loyal to his half-brother— Jahangir is seduced, later, by disloyal Begchik chiefs— Husain Bai-gara summons help against Shaibani— Despair in Babur’s party at Husain’s plan of “defence, not attack” —Qambar-i-‘ali dismissed to please Baqi—Khusrau makes abject submission to Babur—Mirza Khan demands venge- ance on him—kKhusrau’s submission having been on terms, he is let go free—Babur resumes his march—first sees Canopus—is joined by tribesmen—Khusrau’s brother Wali flees to the Atizbegs and is executed—Risks run by the families now fetched from Kahmard—Kabul surrendered to Babur by Mugim Arghin—Mugqim’s family protected— Description of Kabul (pp. 199 to 277)—Mugqim leaves for Qandahar—Allotment of fiefs—Excess levy in grain— Foray on the Sultan Mas‘tidi Hazara—Babur’s first move for Hindistan—Khaibar traversed—Bigram visited— Baqi Beg prevents crossing the Sind—and persuades for Kohat —A plan for Bangash, Banni and thence return to Kabul— Yar-i-husain Darya-khani asks for permission to raise a force for Babur, east of the Sind—Move to Thal, Banni, and the Dasht—return route varied without consulting Babur—Pir Kanii’s tomb visited—through the Pawat-pass into Diki—horse-food fails—baggage left behind—men of all conditions walk to Ghazni spectacle of the Ab-istada—mirage and birds Jahangir is Babur’s host in Ghazni—heavy floods—Kabul reached after a disastrous expedition of four months—NaAsir’s misconduct abetted by two Begchik chiefs—he and they flee into Badakhshan— Khusrau Shah’s schemes fail in Herat—imbroglio between him and Nasir—Shaibani attempts Hisar but abandons the siege on his brother’s death—Khusrau attempts Hisar and is there killed—his followers revolt against Babur—his death quenches the fire of sedition. . 188-245

Xil

CONTENTS

911 AH.—June 4th 1505 to May 24th 1506 ap.—Death of

Babur’s mother-—Babur’s illness stops a move for Qandahar —an earth-quake campaign against and capture of Qalat- i-ghilzai Baqi Beg dismissed towards Hindiistan murdered in the Khaibar—Turkman Hazara raided— Nijr-aii tribute collected—Jahangir misbehaves and runs away Babur summoned by Husain #az-gard against Shaibani—Shaibani takes Khwarizm and Chin Sifi is killed—Death and biography of Husain Baz-gara (256 to 292)—his burial and joint-successors . ; . 246-293

912 AH.—May 24th 1506 to May 13th 1507 Ap.—Babur, without

news of Husain Bai-gara’s death, obeys his summons and leaves Kabul—Jahangir flees from Babur’s route—Nasir defeats Shaibani’s men in Badakhshan—Babur, while in Kahmard, hears of Husain’s death—continues his march with anxious thought for the Timirid dynasty—J ahangir waits on him and accompanies him to Herat—Co-alition of Khurasan Mirzas against Shaibani—their meeting with Babur—etiquette of Babur’s reception—an entertainment to him—of the Chingiz-tira—Babur claims the ceremonial observance due to his military achievements—entertain- ments and Babur’s obedience to Muhammadan Law against wine —his reflections on the Mirzas—difficulties of winter- plans (300, 307)—he sees the sights of Heri—visits the Begims—the ceremonies observed—tells of his hitherto abstention from wine and of his present inclination to drink it—Qasim Beg’s interference with those pressing Babur to break the Law—Babur’s poor carving—engages Ma‘siima in marriage —leaves for Kabul—certain retainers stay behind—-a perilous journey through snow to a wrong pass out of the Herirud valley—arrival of the party in Yaka- aulang—joy in their safety and comfort—Shibr-tii traversed into Ghir-bund—Turkman Hazara raided—News reaches Babur of conspiracy in Kabul to put Mirza Khan in his place—Babur concerts plans with the loyal Kabul garrison —moves on through snow and in terrible cold—attacks and defeats the rebels—narrowly escaped death—attributes his safety to prayer—deals mercifully, from family considera- tions, with the rebel chiefs—reflects on their behaviour to him who has protected them—asserts that his only aim is to write the truth letters-of-victory sent out Muh. Husain Dighlat and Mirza Khan banished—Spring excur- sion to Koh-daman Nasir, driven from Badakhshan, takes refuge with Babur ; . 294-322

CONTENTS xiii

913 AH. = Nay 13th 1507 to May 2nd 1508 ap.—Raid on the Ghilji Afghans—separation of the Fifth (KZams)—wild-ass hunting—Shaibani moves against Khurasan—Irresolution of the Timirid Mirzas—lInfatuation of Zi’n-niin Arghin— Shaibani takes Heri—his doings there—Defeat and death of two Bai-gards—The Arghins in Qandahar make over- tures to Babur—he starts to join them against Shaibani— meets Ma‘stima in Ghazni on her way to Kabul—spares Hindiistan traders—meets Jahangir’s widow and infant-son coming from Herat— The Arghiin chiefs provoke attack on Qandahar—Babur’s army—organization and terminology —wins the battle of Qandahar and enters the fort—its spoils—Nasir put in command—Babur returns to Kabul rich in goods and fame—marries Ma‘stima—Shaibani lays siege to Qandahar—Alarm in Kabul at his approach— Mirza Khan and Shah Begim betake themselves to Badakh- shan—Babur sets out for Hindiistan leaving ‘Abdu’r-razzaq in Kabul—Afghan highwaymen—A raid for food—Mah- chuchak’s marriage—Hindistan plan abandoned—Nir-gal and Kinar visited—News of Shaibani’s withdrawal from QOandahar—Babur returns to Kabul—gives Ghazni to Nasir —assumes the title of Padshah—Birth of Humayin, feast and chronogram ; . 323-344

914 aH.—May 2nd 1508 to April ast 1509 AD.—Raid on the Mahmand Afghans Seditious offenders reprieved Khusrau Shah’s former retainers march off from Kabul— ‘Abdu’r-razzaq comes from his district to near Kabul—not known to have joined the rebels—earlier hints to Babur of this “incredible” rebellion—later warnings of an immediate rising . 345-346

Translator’s Mots: 9140925 AH. —1 508t0 1519p. —Date of composition of preceding narrative—Loss of matter here seems partly or wholly due to Babur’s death— Sources helping to fill the Gap—Events of the remainder of 914 AH.—The mutiny swiftly quelled—Babur’s five-fold victory over hostile champions—Sa‘id Chaghatai takes refuge with him in a quiet Kabul—Shaibani’s murders of Chaghatai and Dighlat chiefs. ; . 347-366

915 AH.—April 21st 1509 to April 11th 1510 Ap.—Beginning of hostilities between Isma‘il Sa/awiz and Shaibani— Haidar Dighiat takes refuge with Babur.

916 AH—April 11th 1510 to March 31st 1511 Ap.—Isma‘ll defeats the Atizbegs near Merv—Shaibani is killed—20,000

XiV

CONTENTS

Mughils he had migrated to Khurasan, return to near Qindiiz—Mirza Khan invites Babur to join him against the Aizbegs—Babur goes to Qiindiiz—The 20,000 Mughils proffer allegiance to their hereditary Khan Sa‘id—they propose to set Babur aside—Sa‘id’s worthy rejection of the proposal—Babur makes Sa‘id The Khan of the Mughils and sends him and his Mughils into Farghana—significance of Babur’s words, “I made him Khan”—Babur’s first attempt on Hisar where were Hamza and Mahdi Ad#zbeg—beginning of his disastrous intercourse with Isma‘il Safazwz—Isma‘il sends Khan-zada Begim back to him—with thanks for the courtesy, Babur asks help against the Aizbeg—it is promised under dangerous conditions.

917 AH.—March 31st 1511 to March 19th 1512 ap.—Babur’s

second attempt on Hisar—wins the Battle of Pul-i-sangin— puts Hamza and Mahdi to death—his Persian reinforcement and its perilous cost—The Aiizbegs are swept across the Zar-afshan—The Persians are dismissed from Bukhara— Babur occupies Samarkand after a nine-year’s absence—he gives Kabul to Nasir—his difficult position in relation to the Shi‘a Isma‘il—Isma‘il sends Najm Sani to bring him to order.

918 AH.—March 19th 1512 to March 9th1513 aD.—The Aiizbegs

return to the attack—‘Ubaid’s vow—his defeat of Babur at Kial-i-malik—Babur flees from Samarkand to Hisar—his pursuers retire—Najm Sani from Balkh gives him rendez- vous at Tirmiz—the two move for Bukhara—Najm perpe- trates the massacre of Qarshi—Babur is helpless to prevent it—Najm crosses the Zar-afshan to a disadvantageous position—is defeated and slain—Babur, his reserve, does not fight—his abstention made a reproach at the Persian Court against his son Humayiin (1544 AD. ?)—his arrow- sped message to the Aiizbeg camp—in Hisar, he is attacked suddenly by Mughiils—he escapes to Qiindiiz—the retri- butive misfortunes of Hisar—Haidar on Mughtls—Ayib Begchik’s death-bed repentance for his treachery to Babur —Haidar returns to his kinsfolk in Kashghar.

919 AH.—March 9th 1513 to Feb. 26th 1514 AD.—Babur may

920

- have spent the year in Khishm—Isma‘il takes Balkh from

the Atizbegs—surmised bearing of the capture on his later action.

AH.—Feb. 26th 1514 to Feb. 15th 1515 ap. Haidar’s account of Babur’s misery, patience and courtesy this year

seit Soon Tare ats NC ia See a oe es or IS MEd oa ; Ray tin it ee Th al Later o, at nN ghee z Ba retcenad aoe :

CONTENTS XV

in Qundtiz—Babur returns to Kabul—his daughter Gul- rang is born in Khwast—he is welcomed by Nasir who goes back to Ghazni.

921 AH.—Feb. 15th 1515 to Feb. 5th 1516 AD.—Death of Nasir—Riot in Ghazni led by Sherim Taghai MWughul— quiet restored many rebels flee. to Kashghar—Sherim refused harbourage by Sa‘id Khan and seeks Babur’s pro- tection—Haidar’s comment on Babur’s benevolence.

922 AH.—Feb. 5th 1516 to Jan. 24th 1517 AD.—A quiet year _ in Kabul apparently—Birth of ‘Askari.

923 AH.—Jan. 24th 1517 to Jan. 13th 1518 Ap.—Babur visits Balkh—Khwand-amir’s account of the affairs of Muhammad -i-zaman Mirza 4az-gara—Babur pursues the Mirza—has him brought to Kabul—gives him his daughter Ma‘siima in marriage—An expedition to Qandahar returns fruitless, on account of his illness—Shah Beg’s views on Babur’s per- sistent attempts on Qandahar—Shah Beg’s imprisonment and release by his slave Sambal’s means.

924 AH.—Jan. 13th 1518 to Jan. 3rd 1519 AD.—Shah Beg’s son Hasan flees to Babur—stays two years—date of his return to his father—Babur begins a campaign in Bajaur against Haidar-i-‘ali Bayauri—takes two forts.

[End of Translator’s Note. |

925 AH.—Jan. 3rd to Dec. 23rd 1519 AD.—Babur takes the Fort of Bajaur—massacres its people as false to Iskam—Khwaja Kalan made its Commandant—an excessive impost in grain —a raid for corn— Mahim’s adoption of Dil-dar’s unborn child—Babur marries Bibi Mubarika—Repopula- tion of the Fort of Bajaur—Expedition against Afghan

- tribesmen—Destruction of the tomb of a heretic qalandar —Babur first crosses the Sind—his long-cherished desire for Hindistan—the ford of the Sind—the Koh-i-jiid (Salt- range) his regard for Bhira, Khish-ab, Chin-ab and Chinitit as earlier possessions of the Turk, now therefore his own—the Kalda-kahar lake and subsequent location on it of the Bagh-i-safa—Assurance of safety sent to Bhira as a Turk possession—History of Bhira efc. as Turk posses- sions—Author’s Note on Tatar Khan Yasuf-khatl—envoys sent to Balichis in Bhira—heavy floods in camp—Offenders against Bhira people punished—Agreed tribute collected —Envoy sent to ask from Ibrahim La#dz the lands once dependent on the Turk—Daulat Khan arrests and keeps

XVi

CONTENTS

the envoy who goes back later to Babur re zufecté—news of Hind-al’s birth and cause of his name—description of a drinking-party—Tatar Khan Kakar compels Minichihr Khan Zurk, going to wait on Babur, to become his son-in- law—Account of the Kakars—excursions and drinking- parties—Bhira appointments—action taken against Hati Khan Kakar—Description and capture of Parhala—Babur sees the sambal plant—a tiger killed—-Gir-khattri visited —Loss of a clever hawk—Khaibar traversed—mid-day halt in the Bagh-i-wafa—Qara-tii garden visited—News of Shah Beg’s capture of Kahan—Babur’s boys carried out in haste to meet him—wine-parties—Death and biography of Dost Beg—Arrival of Sultanim Baz-gara and ceremonies observed on meeting her A long-imprisoned traitor released—Excursion to Koh-daman—Hindi Beg abandons Bhira Babur has (intermittent) fever Visitors from Khwast—Yisuf-zai chiefs wait on Babur—Khalifa’s son sends a wedding-gift —— Babur’s amusement when illness keeps him from an entertainment—treatment of his illness —A Thursday reading of theology (see Add. Note p. 401) —Swimming—Envoy from Mirza Khan—Tribesmenallowed to leave Kabul for wider grazing-grounds—Babur sends his first Diwan to Pilad Adzbeg in Samarkand—Arrivals and departures—Punitive expedition against the‘Abdu’r-rahman Afghans—punishment threatened and inflicted (p. 405) on defaulters in help to an out-matched man—Description of the Rustam-maidan—return to Kabul—Excursion to Koh- daman— snake incident Tramontane begs warned for service—fish-drugging—Babur’s non-pressure to drink, on an abstainer—wine-party—misadventure on a raft—tooth- picks gathered—A new retainer—Babur shaves his head— Hind-al’s guardian appointed—Aiizbeg raiders defeated in Badakhshan Various arrivals Yisuf-zai campaign Babur dislocates his wrist—Varza—Dilah-zak chiefs wait on him—Plan to store corn in Hash-nagar—Incidents of the road—Khaibar traversed—Bara urged on Babur as a place for corn—Kabul river forded at Bara—little corn found and the Hash-nagar plan foiled—Plan to store Pashawar Fort return to ‘Ali-masjid News of an invasion of Badakhshan hurries Babur back through the Khaibar—The Khizr-khail Afghans punished Babur first writes since dislocating his wrist—The beauty and fruits of the Bagh-i- wafa—incidents of the return march to Kabul—Excursion to the Koh-daman—beauty of its harvest crops and autumnal

CONTENTS XVil

trees—a line offensive to Khalifa (see Add. Note p. 416)— Humayin makes a good shot—Beauty of the harvest near Istalif and in the Bagh-i-padshahi— Return to Kabul Babur receives a white falcon in gift pays a visit of consolation to an ashamed drinker—Arrivals various—he finishes copying ‘Ali-sher’s four Dzwans— An order to exclude from future parties those who become drunk— Babur starts for Lamghan . : . 367-419

926 AH.—Dec. 23rd 1519 to Dec. 12th 1520 ap.—Excursion to

926

Koh-daman and Kohistan—incidents of the road—Babur shoots with an easy bow, for the first time after the disloca- tion of his wrist Nijr-aii tribute fixed Excursions in Lamghan—Kafir head-men bring goat-skins of wine— Halt in the Bagh-i-wafa—its oranges, beauty and charm— Babur records his wish and intention to return to obedience in his 40th year and his consequent excess in wine as the end approached—composes an air—visits Nir-valley— relieves Kwaja Kalan in Bajaur—teaches a talisman to stop rain—his opinion of the ill-taste and disgusting intoxication of beer—his reason for summoning Khwaja Kalan, and trenchant words to Shah Hasan relieving him—an old beggar loaded with gifts—the raft strikes a rock—Descrip- tion of the Kindir spring—Fish taken from fish-ponds— Hunting—Accident to a tooth—Fishing with a net—A murderer made over to the avengers of blood—A Qoran chapter read and start made for Kabul—(here the diary breaks off). : . 420-425

Translator’s Note.—926to932 AH.—1520to1525 AD. —Babur’s activities in the Gap—missing matter less interesting than that lost in the previous one—its distinctive mark is biographical— Dramatis persone— Sources of information : : . 426-444

AH.—Dec. 23rd 1519 to Dec. 12th 1520 AD.—Babur’s five expeditions into Hindiistan—this year’s cut short by menace from Qandahar—Shah Beg’s position—particulars of his menace not ascertained— Description of Qandahar-fort —Babur’s various sieges—this year’s raised because of pesti- lence within the walls—Shah Beg pushes out into Sind.

927 AH.—Dec. 12th 1520 to Dec. 1st 1521 AD—Two accounts

of this year’s siege of Qandahar—(i) that of the Hadbibu’'s- styar—(ii) that of the 7arikh-z-sind—concerning the dates involved—Mirza Khan’s death.

b

XVili

CONTENTS

928 AH.—Dec. 1st 1521 to Nov. 20th 1522 ap.—Babur and

929

Mahim visit Humayiin in Badakhshan— Expedition to Qandahar—of the duel between Babur and Shah Beg— the Chihil-zina monument of victory—Death of Shah Beg and its date—Babur’s literary work down to this year.

AH.—Nov. 20th 1522 to Nov. 10th 1523 ap.—Hindistan affairs— Daulat Khan Ladi, Ibrahim Ladz and Babur— Dilawar (son of Daulat Khan) goes to Kabul and asks help against [brahim—Babur prays for a sign of victory— prepares for the expedition—‘Alam Khan Lad (apparently in this year) goes to Kabul and asks Babur’s help against his nephew Ibrahim—Birth of Gul-badan.

930 AH.—Nov. 10th 1523 to Oct. 27th 1524 Ap.—Babur’s fourth

expedition into Hindistan—differs from earlier ones by its concert with malcontents in the country—Babur defeats Bihar Khan Ladi near Lahor—Lahor occupied—Dibalpir stormed, plundered and its people massacred—Babur moves onward from Sihrind but returns on news of Daulat Khan’s doings—there may have been also news of Aizbeg threat to Balkh—The Panj-ab garrison—Death of Isma‘l Safawi and of Shah Beg—Babur turns for Kabul—plants bananas in the Bagh-i-wafa. |

931 AH.—Oct. 29th 1524 to Oct. 18th 1525 Ap.—Daulat Khan’s

932

large resources—he defeats ‘Alam Khan at Dibalpir— ‘Alam Khan flees to Kabul and again asks help—Babur’s conditions of reinforcement ‘Alam Khan’s subsequent proceedings detailed s.¢. 932 AH.—Babur promises to follow him speedily—is summoned to Balkh by its Aizbeg menace —his arrival raises the siege—he returns to Kabul in time for his start to Hindiistan in 932 ; ; . 426-444

[End of Translator’s Note. ]

SECTION III—HINDUSTAN

AH.—Oct. 18th 1525 to Oct. 8th 1526 Ap.—Babur starts on his fifth expedition into Hindiistan—is attacked by illness at Gandamak—Humayiin is late in coming in from Badakh- shan—Verse-making on the Kabul-river—Babur makes a satirical verse such as he had forsworn when writing the Mubin—attributes a relapse of illness to his breach of vow —renews his oath—Fine spectacle of the lighted camp at Ali-masjid—Hunting near Bigram—Preparations for ferry- ing the Sind—Order to make a list of all with the army,

~ CONTENTS Xix

and to count them up—continuation of illness—Orders sent to the Lahor begs to delay engagement till Babur arrived —The Sind ferried (for the first time) and the army tale declared as 12,000 good and bad—The eastward march— unexpected ice—Rendezvous made with the Lahor begs— Jat and Gijiir thieves—a courier sent again to the begs— News that ‘Alam Khan had let Ibrahim Ladz defeat him near Dihli—particulars of the engagement—he takes refuge with Babur—The Lahor begs announce their arrival close at hand—Ibrahim’s troops retire before Babur’s march— Daulat Khan Za#dz surrenders Milwat (Malot)—waits on Babur and is reproached—Ghazi Khan’s abandonment of his family censured—Jaswan-valley—Ghazi Khan pursued —Babur advances against Ibrahim La#di—his estimate of his adversary’s strength—‘Alam Khan’s return destitute to Babur—Babur’s march leads towards Panipat—Humiayin’s first affair succeeds—reiterated news of Ibrahim’s approach —Babur’s success in a minor encounter—he arrays and counts his effective force—finds it under the estimate— orders that every man in the army shall collect carts towards Rimi defence—700 carts brought in—account of the defences of the camp close to the village of Panipat— Babur on the futility of fear; his excuses for the fearful in his army—his estimate of Ibrahim’s army and of its higher possible numbers—Author’s Note on the Aizbeg chiefs in Hisar (918 AH. 1512 AD.)—Preliminary encounters—Battle and victory of Panipat—Ibrahim’s body found—Dihli and Agra occupied by Babur—he makes the circuit of a Farghana-born ruler in Dihli—visits other tombs and sees sights—halts opposite Tighliiqabad—the #utba read for him in Dihli—he goes to Agra—Author’s Note on rulers in Gualiar—The ‘(Koh-i-nir) diamond given by the Gialiar family to Humaytin— Babur’s dealings with Ibrahim’s mother and her entourage—Description of Hindustan (pp. 478 to 521)—Revenues of Hind (p. 521)—Agra treasure distributed—local disaffection to Babur—discontent in his army at remaining in Hindtistan—he sets the position forth to his Council—Khwaja Kalan decides to leave—his and Babur’s verses on his desertion—Babur’s force grows locally —action begun against rebels to Ibrahim in the East— Gifts made to officers, and postings various—Biban /a/wani revolts and is beaten—The Mir of Biana warned—Mention of Rana Sanga’s failure in his promise to act with Babur— Sanga’s present action—Decision in Council to leave Sanga

CONTENTS

aside and to march to the East—Humayiin leads out the army—Babur makes garden, well and mosque near Agra— Progress of Humaytin’s campaign—News of the Atizbegs in Balkh and Khurasan—A ffairs of Gujrat . . 445-535

933 AH.—Oct. 8th 1526 to Sep. 27th 1527 AaD.—Birth announced

of Babur’s son Fariq—incomplete success in casting a large mortar— Varza—Humayiin summoned from the East to act against Sanga—Plundering expedition towards Biana— Tahangar, Gialiar and Dilpir obtained—Hamid Khan Sarang-khani defeated—Arrival of a Persian embassy— Ibrahim’s mother tries to poison Babur—Copy of Babur’s letter detailing the affair his dealings with the poisoner and her agents—Humayiin’s return to Agra— Khw. Dost-i-khawand’s arrival from Kabul Reiterated news of the approach of Rana Sanga—Babur sends an advance force to Biana—Hasan Khan Mzwatt—Tramontane matters disloyal to Babur—Trial-test of the large mortar (p. 536)—Babur leaves Agra to oppose Sanga—adverse encounter with Sanga by Biana garrison—Alarming reports of Rajpiit prowess—Spadesmen sent ahead to dig wells in Madhakir pargana—Babur halts there—arrays and moves to Sikri—various joinings and scoutings—discomfiture of a party reconnoitring from Sikri—the reinforcement also overcome—The enemy retires at sight of a larger troop from Babur—defence of the Sikri camp Rimi fashion, with ditch besides—Continued praiseof Rajpitit prowess—Further defence of the camp made to hearten Babur’s men—20—25 days spent in the above preparations—arrival of 500 men from Kabul—also of Muh. Sharif an astrologer who augurs ill for Babur’s success—Archers collected and Miwat over- run—Babur reflects that he had always wished to cease from the sin of wine—verses about his then position resolves to renounce wine—details of the destruction of wine and precious vessels, and of the building of a com- memorative well and alms-house—his oath to remit a tax if victorious is recalled to him—he remits the zamgha— Shaikh Zain writes the farman announcing the two acts— Copy of the farman Great fear in Babur’s army he adjures the Ghazi spirit in his men who vow to stand fast— his perilous position—he moves forward in considerable array—his camp is laid out and protected by ditch and carts—An omen is taken and gives hope—Khalifa advising, the camp is moved—While tents were being set up, the

CONTENTS >

enemy appears—The battle and victory of Kanwa—described in a copy of the Letter-of-victory—Babur inserts this because of its full particulars (pp. 559 to 574)—assumes the title of Ghazi—Chronograms of the victory and also of that in Dibalpir (930 AH.)—pursuit of the fugitive foe—escape of Sanga—the falsely-auguring astrologer banished with a gift —a small revolt crushed—a pillar of heads set up—Babur visits Biana—Little water and much heat set aside plan to invade Sanga’s territory—Babur visits Miwat—give some historical account of it—-Commanders rewarded Alwar visited—Humayin and others allowed to leave Hindistan —Despatch of the Letter-of-victory—Various excursions— Humayin bidden farewell—Chandwar and Rapri recovered —Apportionment of fiefs—Biban flees before Babur’s men— Dispersion of troops for the Rains—Misconductof Humayin and Babur’s grief—Embassy to ‘Iraq—Tardi Beg khaksar allowed to return to the darwesh-life— Babur’s lines to departing friends—The Ramzan-feast Playing-cards— Babur ill (seemingly with fever)—visits Dilpir and orders a house excavated—visits Bari and sees the ebony-tree— has doubt of Bayazid Harmili’s loyalty—his remedial and metrical exercises—his Treatise on Prosody composed— a relapse of illness—starts on an excursion to Kil and Sambal . é , ; . 536-586

934 AH.—Sep. 27th 1527 to Sep. 15th 1528 ap.—Babur visits

Kil and Sambal and returns to Agra—has fever and ague intermittently for 20-25 days—goes out to welcome kins- women—a large mortar bursts with fatal result—he visits Sikri—starts for Holy War against Chandiri—sends troops against Bayazid Farmali— incidents of the march to Chandiri—account of Kachwa—account of Chandiri—its siege—Meantime bad news arrives from the East—Babur keeping this quiet, accomplishes the work in hand—Chandiri taken—change of plans enforced by defeat in the East— return northwards—Further losses in the East—Rebels take post to dispute Babur’s passage of the Ganges—he orders a pontoon-bridge—his artillery is used with effect, the bridge finished and crossed and the Afghans worsted—Tukhta- bigha Chaghatdi arrives from Kashgar Babur visits Lakhnau suffers from ear-ache reinforces Chin-timir against the rebels—Chin-timiir gets the better of Bayazid Farmuli—Babur settles the affairs of Aid (Oude) and plans to hunt near. : ; ; . 587-602

XXii CONTENTS

Translator’s Note (part of 934 AH.)—On the cir. half-year’s missing matter—-known events of the Gap :— Continued campaign against Biban and Bayazid-——Babur at Jiinpir, Chausa and Baksara—swims the Ganges—bestows Sarin on a Farmili—orders a Char-bagh made—is ill for 40 days—is inferred to have visited Dilpir, recalled ‘Askari from Multan, sent Khw. Dost-i-khawand to Kabul on family affairs which were causing him much concern—Remarks on the Gap and, incidentally, on the Rampitr Diwan and verses in it suiting Babur’s illnesses of 934 AH.

[End of Translator’s Note. ]

935 AH. Sep. 15th 1528 to Sep. 5th 1529 ap.—‘Askari reaches Agra from Multan—Khwand-amir and others arrive from Khurasan—Babur prepares to visit Gialiar—bids farewell to kinswomen who are returning to Kabul—marches out— is given an unsavoury medicament—inspects construction- work in Dilptiir—reaches Gualiar—Description of Gualiar (p. 607 to p. 614)—returns to Dilpir—suffers from ear-ache inspects work in Sikri and reaches Agra—visit and welcomes to kinswomen—sends an envoy to take charge of Rantanbhtir—makes a levy on stipendiaries—sends letters to kinsfolk in Khurasan—News arrives of Kamran and | Dost-i-khawand in Kabul—of Tahmasp Sa/fawi’s defeat at Jam of ‘Ubaidu’l-lah Aazbeg—of the birth of a son to Humayin, and of a marriage by Kamran—he rewards an artificer—is strongly attacked by fever—for his healing translates Ahrari’s Walidiyyah-risala—account of the task —Troops warned for service—A long-detained messenger returns from Humayin—Accredited messengers-of-good- tidings bring the news of Humayiin’s son’s birth—an instance of rapid travel—Further particulars of the Battle of Jam— Letters written and summarized Copy of one to Humayun inserted here—Plans for an eastern cam- paign under ‘Askari—royal insignia given to him—Orders for the measurement, stations and up-keep of the Agra- Kabul road—the M/udin quoted—A feast describes—‘Askari bids his Father farewell—Babur visits Dilpir and inspects his constructions—Persian account of the Battle of Jam— Babur decides contingently to go to the East—Balichi incursions—News reaches Dilpir of the loss of Bihar (town) and decides Babur to go East—News of Humayitin’s action in Badakhshan—Babur starts from Agra—honoured arrivals in the assembly-camp—incidents of the march—congratula-

CONTENTS XXiii

tions and gifts sent to Kamran, Humayin and others—also specimens of the Baburi-script, and copies of the translation of the Walidiyyah-risala and the Hindistan Poems—. commends his building-work to his workmen—makes a new ruler for the better copying of the Waldiyyah-risa/a transla- tion—letters written—Copy of one to Khwaja Kalan inserted here—Complaints from Kitin-qara Azzbeg of Babur’s begs on the Balkh frontier—Babur shaves his head —Mahim using his style, orders her own escort from Kabul to Agra— Babur watches wrestling —leaves the Jumna, disembarks his guns, and goes across country to Dugdugi on the Ganges—travels by litter—‘Askari and other Com- manders meet him—News of Biban, Bayazid and other Afghans—Letters despatched to meet Mahim on her ro

surmised survival of record displaced from 934 AH.)—fall of a river-bank under his horse—swims the Ganges—crosses the Jumna at Allahabad (Piag) and re-embarks his guns— wrestling watched—the evil Tonshe is attacked by boils —a Rimi remedy applied—a futile attempt to hunt—he sends money-drafts to the travellers from Kabul—visits places on the Ganges he had seen last year—receives various letters below Ghazipir—has news that the Ladies are actually on their way from Kabul—last year’s eclipse recalled—Hindu dread of the Karma-nasa river—wrestling watched—Rimi remedy for boils used again with much discomfort—fall of last year’s landing-steps at Baksara— wrestling—Negociations with an envoy of Nasrat Shah of Bengal—Examinationinto Muhammad-i-zaman’s objections to a Bihar appointment—despatch of troops to Bihar (town) —Muhammad-i-zaman submits requests which are granted —a small success against Afghans—Royal insignia given to Muhammad-i-zaman, with leave to start for Bihar—Babur’s boats—News of the Bengal army—Muhammad-i-zaman recalled because fighting was probable—Didi Bibi and her son Jalal escape from Bengal to come to Babur—Further discussions with the Bengal envoy—Favourable news from Bihar—Babur in Arrah—Position of the Bengal army near the confluence of Gang and Sari’ (Ganges and Gogra)— Babur making further effort for peace, sends an envoy to Nasrat Shah—gives Nasrat’s envoy leave to go conveying an ultimatum—Arrival of a servant from Mahim west of the Bagh-i-safa—Babur visits lotus-beds near Arrah—also

xxiv CONTENTS

Munir and the Son—Distance measured by counting a horse’s paces—care for tired horses—Babur angered by Junaid Barlas belated arrival Consultation and plans made for the coming battle—the Ganges crossed (by the Burh-ganga channel) and move made to near the confluence Babur watches ‘Ali-quli’s stone-discharge his boat entered by night—Battle and victory of the Gogra—Babur praises and thanks his Chaghatai cousins for their great services—crosses into the Nirhun pargana—his favours to a Farmili—News of Biban and Bayazid—and of the strange deaths in Sambal—Chin-timir sends news from the west of inconveniences caused by the Ladies’ delay to leave Kabul —and of success against the Baltichi—he is ordered to Agra—Settlement made with the Nuhani Afghans—Peace made with Nasrat Shah—Submissions and various guerdon —Biban and Bayazid pursued—Babur's papers damaged in a storm—News of the rebel pair as taking Luknir (?)— Disposition of Babur’s boats—move along the Sari—(a surmised survival of the record of 934 AH.)—Account of the capture of Luknir (?)—Dispositions against the rebel pair—fish caught by help of a lamp—incidents of the march to Adampir on the Jumna—Biban and Bayazid flee to Mahiiba—Eastern Campaign wound up—Babur’s rapid ride 4 to Agra (p. 686)—visits kinswomen—is pleased with Indian- | grown fruits—Mahim arrives—her gifts and Humayiin’s set | before Babur—porters sent off for Kabul to fetch fruits—

Account of the deaths in Sambal brought in—sedition in

Lahor wrestling watched —sedition of Rahim-dad in

Gialiar—-Mahdi Khwaja comes to Agra. . 605-689

936 AH.—Sep. 5th 1529 to Aug. 25th 1530 AD.—Shaikh Ghaus comes from Gialiar to intercede for Rahim-dad—Gialiar taken over , ; ; : . 690

Translator’s Note.—936 and 937 AH.— 1529 and 1530 AD.—Sources from which to fill the Gap down to Babur’s death (December 26th 1530)-— Humayin’s pro- | ceedings in Badakhshan Haidar Dagh/a?’s narrative of ae them Huma§ayiin deserts his post, goes to Kabul, and, arranging with Kamran, sends Hind-al to Badakhshan— goes on to Agra and there arrives unexpected by his Father—as he is unwilling to return, Sulaiman J/zran- shahi is appointed under Babur’s suzerainty—Sa‘id Khan is warned to leave Sulaiman in possession—Babur moves westward to support him and visits Lahor—waited on in

NROWOZS HAGA TODO

CONTENTS XXV

Sihrind by the Raja of Kahliir— received in Lahor by Kamran and there visited from Kabul by Hind-al leaves Lahor (March 4th 1530 ap.)—from Sihrind sends a punitive force against Mundahir Rajpits—hunts near Dihli appears to have started off an expedition to Kashmir family matters fill the rest of the year Humayin falls ill in Sambal and is brought to Agra— his disease not yielding to treatment, Babur resolves to practise the rite of intercession and self-surrender to save his life—is urged rather to devote the great diamond (Koh-i-niir) to pious uses—refuses the substitution of the jewel for his own life—performs the rite—Humayin recovers —Babur falls ill and is bedridden till death—his faith in the rite unquestionable, belief-in its efficacy general in the East—Plan to set Babur’s sons aside from the succession— The Zabagat-t-akbari story discussed (p. 702 to 708)— suggested basis of the story (p. 705) Babur’s death (Jimada I. 5th 937 AH.—Dec. 26th 1530 AD.) and burial first, near Agra, later near Kabul—Shah-jahan’s epitaph inscribed on a tablet near the grave—Babur’s wives and children—Mr. Erskine’s estimate of his character 691-716.

[End of Translator’s Note. |

APPENDICES

Site and disappearance of old Akhsi. _ The birds Qil-qiyirigh and Baghri-gara. On the gosha-gir. The Rescue-passage. Nagarahar and Ning-nahar. The name Dara-i-nir. On the names of two Dara-i-nir wines.